xref: /illumos-gate/usr/src/data/zoneinfo/europe (revision 06965442)
1# tzdb data for Europe and environs
2
3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
5
6# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
7# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
8# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
9# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
10
11# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
12#
13# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
14# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
15# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
16# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
17#
18# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
19# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
20# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
21# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
22# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
23# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
24#
25# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
26# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
27#
28# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
29# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
30#
31# Other sources occasionally used include:
32#
33#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
34#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
35#	which I found in the UCLA library.
36#
37#	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
38#	<http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
39#	[PDF] (1914-03)
40#
41#	Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
42#	<https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
43#	"It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
44#	may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
45#	Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
46#
47#	Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
48#	This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
49#	https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
50#	The full Russian citation is:
51#	Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
52#	введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
53#	июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
54#	Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
55#	http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
56#
57#	Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
58#	History of Summer Time
59#	<http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
60#	(1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
61#
62# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
63# the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
64# or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
65#                   std  dst  2dst
66#                   LMT             Local Mean Time
67#       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
68#        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
69#        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
70#        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
71#        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
72#        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST
73#        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
74#        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
75#        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
76#        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
77#        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow
78
79# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members:
80# The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
81# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
82# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
83# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
84# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
85# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
86# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
87# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
88# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
89# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
90# ...
91# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
92# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
93# ...
94# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
95# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
96# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
97# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
98# in the Directive.
99
100
101###############################################################################
102
103# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
104
105# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
106#
107# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
108# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
109# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
110# of the text said:
111#
112# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
113# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
114# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
115# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
116# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
117# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
118# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
119#
120# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
121# position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
122# be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
123#
124# [This yields STDOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
125
126# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
127#
128# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
129# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
130# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
131# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
132# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
133# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
134# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
135# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
136# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
137# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
138# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
139# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
140# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
141# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
142# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
143# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
144# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
145# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
146# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
147# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
148#
149# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
150# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
151# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
152
153# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
154# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
155# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
156# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
157# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
158# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
159# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
160# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
161# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
162# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.
163# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
164# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
165# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
166# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
167#
168# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
169# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
170# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
171# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
172# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
173# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
174# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
175# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
176# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
177# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
178# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
179# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
180# subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
181# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
182# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
183
184# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
185# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
186# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
187# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
188# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
189# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
190#	-- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
191#	republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
192#	https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill
193
194# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
195# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
196# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
197# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
198# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
199# The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
200# Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
201# ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
202
203# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
204# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
205# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
206
207# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
208# From: Jonathan Leffler
209# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
210# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
211# politics making a fortune, not computing.
212
213# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
214# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
215# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
216# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
217# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
218
219# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
220# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
221# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
222# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
223
224# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
225# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
226# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
227# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
228# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
229# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
230# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
231# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
232
233# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
234# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
235# which is to be introduced in May....
236# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
237# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
238
239# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
240# Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
241# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
242# so we use 'BDST'.
243
244# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
245# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
246# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
247# and extending this list, which can be found in
248# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
249
250# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
251#
252# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
253# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
254# https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
255# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
256
257# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
258#
259# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
260#
261# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
262# are incorrect:
263#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
264#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
265# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
266#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
267# It actually just had one transition.
268#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
269# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
270#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
271# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
272# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
273#
274# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
275#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
276#	to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
277#	conform with Great Britain.
278# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
279#
280# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
281# we'll ignore it for now.
282#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
283
284# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):
285#
286# Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as
287# Greenwich was to London.  For example:
288#
289#   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
290#   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
291#
292# The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time";
293# this being Ireland, opinions differed.
294#
295# Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees
296# with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink
297# Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24.
298# <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>.  Malone
299# writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when
300# it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used
301# the former and the 1896 edition used the latter).  Evidently the
302# news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists
303# UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau.  As it is
304# not clear that there was any practical significance to the change
305# from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this
306# transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its
307# fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.
308
309# "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
310# was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
311# would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
312# Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
313# -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
314# Irish Times 2014-10-27.
315# https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
316
317# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
318# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
319# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
320#
321# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
322#
323# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
324# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
325#
326# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
327# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
328# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
329#
330# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
331# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
332# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
333#
334# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
335# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
336#
337# (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
338# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
339# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
340#
341# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
342# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
343# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
344# being GMT+1.)
345
346# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
347# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
348# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
349# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
350# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
351# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
352# and Frethun run in CT.
353# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
354# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
355# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
356# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
357# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
358# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
359
360# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
361# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
362# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
363# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
364# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
365# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
366# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
367#
368# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07):
369# The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct
370# abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor
371# focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time".  Though the
372# "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an
373# error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that
374# standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in
375# summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter.  (Thanks
376# to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.)  That is, when
377# Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish
378# Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT
379# as a negative daylight saving time in winter.  So, in this database
380# IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for
381# Irish Standard Time after that.  See:
382# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print
383
384# Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's
385# Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947:
386# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print
387# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print
388# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print
389
390# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
391# Summer Time Act, 1916
392Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
393Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
394# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
395Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
396Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
397# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
398Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
399Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
400# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
401Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
402Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
403# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
404Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
405# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
406Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
407# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
408Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
409Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
410# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
411Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
412Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
413# The Summer Time Act, 1922
414Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
415Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
416Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
417Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
418# The Summer Time Act, 1925
419Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
420Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
421Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
422Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
423Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
424Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
425Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
426Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
427Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
428Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
429Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
430# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
431Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
432# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
433Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	Sun>=23	2:00s	1:00	BST
434# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
435Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
436Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
437# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
438Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
439# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
440Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
441# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
442Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
443Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
444# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
445Rule	GB-Eire	1945	1946	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
446Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
447# The Summer Time Act, 1947
448Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
449Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	BDST
450Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
451Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
452# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
453Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
454Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Oct	31	2:00s	0	GMT
455# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
456Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
457Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Oct	30	2:00s	0	GMT
458# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
459# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
460# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
461Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
462Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
463# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
464Rule	GB-Eire	1953	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
465Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
466Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
467Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
468Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
469Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
470Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
471# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
472# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
473# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
474Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
475Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
476# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
477# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
478# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
479Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
480# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
481Rule	GB-Eire	1968	only	-	Feb	18	2:00s	1:00	BST
482# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
483#	(no summer time)
484# The Summer Time Act, 1972
485Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
486Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
487# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
488# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
489# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
490# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
491Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
492Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
493# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
494# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
495# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
496Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
497# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
498# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
499#
500# Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
501
502# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
503Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1  0:00s
504			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
505			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
506			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
507			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
508Link	Europe/London	Europe/Jersey
509Link	Europe/London	Europe/Guernsey
510Link	Europe/London	Europe/Isle_of_Man
511
512# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15):
513# In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the
514# Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU:
515# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
516# and with tests for OpenJDK:
517# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
518#
519# To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the
520# following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the
521# other form with a traditional approximation for Irish timestamps
522# after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst
523# flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often
524# suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE
525# values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should
526# not rely on it.
527#
528# The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
529# summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
530# negative SAVE values are used.
531# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
532Rule	Eire	1971	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00u	-1:00	-
533Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	 2:00u	0	-
534Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 2:00u	-1:00	-
535Rule	Eire	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
536Rule	Eire	1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 1:00u	-1:00	-
537Rule	Eire	1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00u	-1:00	-
538Rule	Eire	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	-1:00	-
539
540# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
541Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:00 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
542			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21  2:00s
543			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1  2:00s
544			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
545			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25  2:00s
546			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6  2:00s
547			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16  2:00s
548			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2  2:00s
549			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18  2:00s
550			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
551# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
552			 1:00	Eire	IST/GMT
553# Rearguard section, for parsers lacking negative DST; see ziguard.awk.
554#			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
555#			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
556#			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST
557# End of rearguard section.
558
559
560###############################################################################
561
562# Europe
563
564# The following rules are for the European Union and for its
565# predecessor organization, the European Communities.
566# For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.
567
568# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
569Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	S
570Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
571Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
572Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
573Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
574Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
575# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
576# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
577# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
578# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
579
580# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
581Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
582Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
583Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
584Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
585Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
586Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
587
588# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
589# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
590Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
591Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
592Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
593Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
594Rule	C-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
595Rule	C-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
596Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
597Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
598Rule	C-Eur	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
599# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
600Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
601# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
602#
603# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
604# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
605# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
606# tz database itself, as seen below:
607#
608# Zone Europe/Paris ...
609#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
610#
611# Zone Europe/Monaco ...
612#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
613#
614# Zone Europe/Belgrade ...
615#    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
616#
617# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
618# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
619# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
620#
621# The rule line to be changed is:
622#
623# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
624#
625# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
626# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
627# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
628# affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
629# CET and MET:
630#
631# Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
632# Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
633#
634# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
635#
636# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
637#
638# A small step for mankind though 8-)
639Rule	C-Eur	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
640Rule	C-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
641Rule	C-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
642Rule	C-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
643Rule	C-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
644Rule	C-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
645Rule	C-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
646
647# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
648Rule	E-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
649Rule	E-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
650Rule	E-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
651Rule	E-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
652Rule	E-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
653Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
654
655
656# Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union
657#
658# The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23).
659
660# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
661Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST  # Moscow Summer Time
662#
663# Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137
664Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
665#
666# Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001
667Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
668Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	1:00	MST
669#
670# Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949
671Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
672#
673Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 0:00u	1:00	MSD
674Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	MSK
675#
676# Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840
677Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	MSD
678#
679# Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949
680Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	+05
681#
682Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	MSD
683Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
684# Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
685Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
686Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
687# Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
688# Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
689Rule	Russia	1984	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
690Rule	Russia	1985	2010	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
691#
692Rule	Russia	1996	2010	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
693# As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
694
695# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
696# Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
697# Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
698# Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
699#
700# I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
701# title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
702# "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
703# Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
704# Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
705# And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
706# contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
707# of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
708# oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
709# a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
710# second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
711# b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
712# rules (Moscow time)
713# c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).
714
715# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
716# Unamended version of the act of the
717# Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
718# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
719# says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
720# of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
721# at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
722
723# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
724# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
725# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
726# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
727#
728# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
729# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
730#
731# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
732# https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
733
734# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
735# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
736# to be standard.
737
738# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
739
740# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
741Zone	WET		0:00	EU	WE%sT
742Zone	CET		1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT
743Zone	MET		1:00	C-Eur	ME%sT
744Zone	EET		2:00	EU	EE%sT
745
746# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
747# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
748
749# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
750# The official German names ... are
751#
752#	Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
753#	Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
754#
755# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
756# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
757# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
758#
759#	Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
760#	Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
761#	Postfach 3345
762#	D-38023 Braunschweig
763#	phone: +49 531 592-0
764#
765# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
766# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
767# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
768#
769#	Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
770#	Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
771
772
773# Albania
774# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
775Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	S
776Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
777Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	S
778Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
779Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
780Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
781Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
782Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
783Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
784Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
785Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	S
786Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
787Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	S
788Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
789Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	S
790Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
791Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	S
792Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
793Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	S
794Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
795Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
796Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
797Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
798Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
799Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
800# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
801Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
802			1:00	-	CET	1940 Jun 16
803			1:00	Albania	CE%sT	1984 Jul
804			1:00	EU	CE%sT
805
806# Andorra
807# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
808Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
809			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
810			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31  2:00
811			1:00	EU	CE%sT
812
813# Austria
814
815# Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
816
817# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
818# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
819# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
820# date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
821# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
822# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
823
824# From Alois Treindl (2019-07-22):
825# In 1946 the end of DST was on Monday, 7 October 1946, at 3:00 am.
826# Shanks had this right.  Source: Die Weltpresse, 5. Oktober 1946, page 5.
827
828# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
829Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	S
830Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
831Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
832Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
833Rule	Austria	1947	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
834Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
835Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
836Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
837Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
838# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
839Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:21 -	LMT	1893 Apr
840			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1920
841			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1  2:00s
842			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00s
843			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Apr 12  2:00s
844			1:00	-	CET	1946
845			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
846			1:00	EU	CE%sT
847
848# Belarus
849#
850# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
851# http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
852# (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
853# 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
854# on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
855# (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
856#
857# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
858# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
859# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
860#
861# Sources (Russian language):
862# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
863# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
864# https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
865#
866# From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
867# Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
868# http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
869#
870# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
871Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
872			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
873			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
874			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
875			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
876			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
877			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
878			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
879			3:00	-	+03
880
881# Belgium
882#
883# From Michael Deckers (2019-08-25):
884# The exposition in the web page
885# https://www.bestor.be/wiki/index.php/Voyager_dans_le_temps._L%E2%80%99introduction_de_la_norme_de_Greenwich_en_Belgique
886# gives several contemporary sources from which one can conclude that
887# the switch in Europe/Brussels on 1892-05-01 was from 00:17:30 to 00:00:00.
888#
889# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
890# This quote helps explain the late-1914 situation:
891#   In early November 1914, the Germans imposed the time zone used in central
892#   Europe and forced the inhabitants to set their watches and public clocks
893#   sixty minutes ahead.  Many were reluctant to accept "German time" and
894#   continued to use "Belgian time" among themselves.  Reflecting the spirit of
895#   resistance that arose in the population, a song made fun of this change....
896# The song ended:
897#   Putting your clock forward
898#   Will but hasten the happy hour
899#   When we kick out the Boches!
900# See: Pluvinage G. Brussels on German time. Cahiers Bruxellois -
901# Brusselse Cahiers. 2014;XLVI(1E):15-38.
902# https://www.cairn.info/revue-cahiers-bruxellois-2014-1E-page-15.htm
903#
904# Entries from 1914 through 1917 are taken from "De tijd in België"
905# <https://www.astro.oma.be/GENERAL/INFO/nli001a.html>.
906# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
907#	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
908#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
909#	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
910#	pp 8-9.
911# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for the 1918/1991 references.
912# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
913# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
914#
915# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
916Rule	Belgium	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00s	1:00	S
917Rule	Belgium	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
918Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
919Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
920Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
921Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
922Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
923Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
924Rule	Belgium	1922	1927	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
925Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	S
926Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
927Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
928# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
929# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
930# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
931# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
932Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
933Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
934Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
935Rule	Belgium	1928	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
936Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	S
937Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	S
938Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
939Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
940Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	S
941Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	S
942Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
943Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
944Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
945Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	S
946Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	S
947Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
948Rule	Belgium	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	S
949Rule	Belgium	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
950Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
951Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
952Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
953Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
954# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
955Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
956			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 00:17:30
957			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
958			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
959			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
960			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 20  2:00s
961			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep  3
962			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
963			1:00	EU	CE%sT
964
965# Bosnia and Herzegovina
966# See Europe/Belgrade.
967
968# Bulgaria
969#
970# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
971# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
972# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
973# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
974#
975# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
976Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
977Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
978Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00	1:00	S
979Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
980Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
981# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
982Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
983			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
984			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
985			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
986			1:00	-	CET	1945 Apr  2  3:00
987			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
988			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  3:00
989			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
990			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
991			2:00	EU	EE%sT
992
993# Croatia
994# See Europe/Belgrade.
995
996# Cyprus
997# Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
998
999# Czech Republic / Czechia
1000#
1001# From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15):
1002# The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15.
1003# https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas
1004# We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time;
1005# abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT.
1006#
1007# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1008Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
1009Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
1010Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
1011Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
1012Rule	Czech	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
1013Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
1014# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1015Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
1016			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
1017			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  9
1018			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1946 Dec  1  3:00
1019# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1020			1:00	-1:00	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
1021# Rearguard section, for parsers lacking negative DST; see ziguard.awk.
1022#			0:00	-	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
1023# End of rearguard section.
1024			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
1025			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1026# Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
1027
1028# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
1029
1030# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
1031# the law [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
1032# The page https://www.retsinformation.dk/eli/lta/1893/83
1033# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
1034#
1035# The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
1036# https://www.retsinformation.dk/eli/lta/1972/21100
1037#
1038# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
1039# in subsequent decrees with the law
1040# https://www.retsinformation.dk/eli/lta/1974/223
1041#
1042# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
1043# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
1044# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
1045# 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
1046# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
1047# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
1048# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
1049# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
1050# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
1051# was suspended on that night):
1052# https://web.archive.org/web/20140104053304/https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=60267
1053
1054# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
1055# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
1056# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
1057
1058# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
1059# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
1060# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
1061
1062# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1063Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
1064Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
1065Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	S
1066Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
1067Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
1068Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
1069Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
1070Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
1071Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
1072Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	S
1073Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
1074#
1075# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1076Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
1077			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
1078			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1079			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
1080			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
1081			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
1082Zone Atlantic/Faroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1083			 0:00	-	WET	1981
1084			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
1085#
1086# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1087# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1088# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1089# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1090#
1091# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
1092# Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
1093# obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
1094# on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1095# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
1096# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
1097# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
1098
1099# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
1100# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
1101# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
1102#
1103# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
1104# is according to the following time line:
1105#
1106# The military zone near Thule	UTC-4
1107# Standard Greenland time	UTC-3
1108# Scoresbysund			UTC-1
1109# Danmarkshavn			UTC
1110#
1111# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
1112# introduced.
1113
1114# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
1115#
1116# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
1117# the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
1118# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
1119# info from earlier correspondence.]
1120#
1121# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
1122# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
1123# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
1124#
1125# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1126# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1127# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1128# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1129# email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1130# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1131# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1132#
1133# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1134# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1135#
1136# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1137# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1138# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1139#
1140# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1141# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1142# maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1143# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1144# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1145
1146# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1147# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1148# there at 2:00 AM.
1149
1150# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1151# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1152# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1153# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1154# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1155# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1156# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1157
1158# From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1159# "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1160# "National Park" by Executive Order:
1161# http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1162# It is their only National Park.
1163#
1164# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1165Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
1166Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
1167Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
1168Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
1169Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
1170Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
1171#
1172# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1173Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
1174			-3:00	-	-03	1980 Apr  6  2:00
1175			-3:00	EU	-03/-02	1996
1176			0:00	-	GMT
1177#
1178# Use the old name Scoresbysund, as the current name Ittoqqortoormiit
1179# exceeds tzdb's 14-letter limit and has no common English abbreviation.
1180Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1181			-2:00	-	-02	1980 Apr  6  2:00
1182			-2:00	C-Eur	-02/-01	1981 Mar 29
1183			-1:00	EU	-01/+00
1184Zone America/Nuuk	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Godthåb
1185			-3:00	-	-03	1980 Apr  6  2:00
1186			-3:00	EU	-03/-02
1187Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik
1188			-4:00	Thule	A%sT
1189
1190# Estonia
1191#
1192# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1193# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1194#
1195# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1196# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1197# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1198# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1199#
1200# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1201# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1202# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1203# "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1204# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1205# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1206# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1207# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1208# summer time next spring."
1209
1210# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1211# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1212# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1213# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1214# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1215#
1216# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1217# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1218# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1219
1220# From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1221# via Steffen Thorsen:
1222# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1223# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1224# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1225# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1226# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1227# after that.
1228
1229# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1230# Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1231# No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1232# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1233
1234# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1235# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1236# Now we are using again EU rules.
1237#
1238# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1239# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1240
1241# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1242Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
1243			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1244			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
1245			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
1246			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
1247			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
1248			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
1249			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1250			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1251			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998 Sep 22
1252			2:00	EU	EE%sT	1999 Oct 31  4:00
1253			2:00	-	EET	2002 Feb 21
1254			2:00	EU	EE%sT
1255
1256# Finland
1257
1258# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1259# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1260# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1261
1262# From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1263#
1264# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1265# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1266# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1267# according to the central European standards.
1268#
1269# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1270# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1271# Finnish) at
1272# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1273#
1274# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1275# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1276#
1277# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1278# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1279#
1280# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1281# exist tonight."
1282
1283# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1284# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1285# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1286# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1287# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1288# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1289# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1290# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1291#
1292# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1293# Go with Oja over Shanks.
1294
1295# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1296Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	2	24:00	1:00	S
1297Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	4	1:00	0	-
1298Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
1299Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	-
1300
1301# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1302# round to nearest.
1303
1304# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1305Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:49 -	LMT	1878 May 31
1306			1:39:49	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1307			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1983
1308			2:00	EU	EE%sT
1309
1310# Åland Is
1311Link	Europe/Helsinki	Europe/Mariehamn
1312
1313
1314# France
1315
1316# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1317#
1318# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1319# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1320#
1321# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1322# Paris, 1991
1323#
1324# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1325# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1326
1327# From Michael Deckers (2020-06-11):
1328# the law of 1891 <https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k64415343.texteImage>
1329# was published on 1891-03-15, so it could only take force on 1891-03-16.
1330
1331# From Michael Deckers (2020-06-10):
1332# Le Gaulois, 1911-03-11, page 1/6, online at
1333# https://www.retronews.fr/societe/echo-de-presse/2018/01/29/1911-change-lheure-de-paris
1334# ... [ Instantly, all pressure driven clock dials halted...  Nine minutes and
1335#       twenty-one seconds later the hands resumed their circular motion. ]
1336# There are also precise reports about how the change was prepared in train
1337# stations: all the publicly visible clocks stopped at midnight railway time
1338# (or were covered), only the chief of service had a watch, labeled
1339# "Heure ancienne", that he kept running until it reached 00:04:21, when
1340# he announced "Heure nouvelle".  See the "Le Petit Journal 1911-03-11".
1341# https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6192911/f1.item.zoom
1342#
1343# From Michael Deckers (2020-06-12):
1344# That "all French clocks stopped" for 00:09:21 is a misreading of French
1345# newspapers; this sort of adjustment applies only to certain
1346# remote-controlled clocks ("pendules pneumatiques", of which there existed
1347# perhaps a dozen in Paris, and which simply could not be set back remotely),
1348# but not to all the clocks in all French towns and villages.  For instance,
1349# the following story in the "Courrier de Saône-et-Loire" 1911-03-11, page 2:
1350# only works if legal time was stepped back (was not monotone): ...
1351#   [One can observe that children who had been born at midnight less 5
1352#    minutes and who had died at midnight of the old time, would turn out to
1353#    be dead before being born, time having been set back and having
1354#    suppressed 9 minutes and 25 seconds of their existence, that is, more
1355#    than they could spend.]
1356#
1357# From Paul Eggert (2020-06-12):
1358# French time in railway stations was legally five minutes behind civil time,
1359# which explains why railway "old time" ran to 00:04:21 instead of to 00:09:21.
1360# The law's text (which Michael Deckers noted is at
1361# <https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k2022333z/f2>) says only that
1362# at 1911-03-11 00:00 legal time was that of Paris mean time delayed by
1363# nine minutes and twenty-one seconds, and does not say how the
1364# transition from Paris mean time was to occur.
1365#
1366# tzdb has no way to represent stopped clocks.  As the railway practice
1367# was to keep a watch running on "old time" to decide when to restart
1368# the other clocks, this could be modeled as a transition for "old time" at
1369# 00:09:21.  However, since the law was ambiguous and clocks outside railway
1370# stations were probably done haphazardly with the popular impression being
1371# that the transition was done at 00:00 "old time", simply leave the time
1372# blank; this causes zic to default to 00:00 "old time" which is good enough.
1373# Do something similar for the 1891-03-16 transition.  There are similar
1374# problems in Algiers, Monaco and Tunis.
1375
1376#
1377# Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1378# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1379Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
1380Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
1381Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
1382Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
1383Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
1384Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
1385Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
1386Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
1387Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
1388Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
1389# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1390# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1391# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1392Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
1393Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	S
1394Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
1395Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
1396Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
1397Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
1398Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
1399Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
1400Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	S
1401Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
1402Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
1403Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
1404Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
1405Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
1406Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
1407Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
1408Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
1409Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
1410Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
1411Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
1412# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1413# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1414# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1415# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1416# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1417# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1418# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1419# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1420Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
1421# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1422# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1423# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1424# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1425Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
1426Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
1427Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	S
1428Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	M
1429Rule	France	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	1:00	S
1430Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	M
1431Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	S
1432Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	M
1433Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
1434# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1435# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1436Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 1:00	1:00	S
1437Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	26	 1:00	0	-
1438# Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1439# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1440# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1441Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 16
1442			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1443# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1444			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
1445# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1446# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1447			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 25
1448			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
1449			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
1450			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1451
1452# Germany
1453
1454# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1455# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1456# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1457# [See tz-link.html for the URL.]
1458
1459# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1460# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1461# https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1462# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1463
1464# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1465# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1466# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1467# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1468# this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1469
1470
1471# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1472Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
1473Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
1474Rule	Germany	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
1475# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1476# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1477# Go with the PTB.
1478Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	3:00s	1:00	S
1479Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	M
1480Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	S
1481Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
1482Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
1483
1484Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	May	24	2:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
1485Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Sep	24	3:00	1:00	S
1486Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
1487
1488# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1489Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
1490			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May 24  2:00
1491			1:00 SovietZone	CE%sT	1946
1492			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
1493			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1494
1495# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1496# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1497# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1498# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1499# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1500# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1501#
1502# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1503# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1504
1505# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1506# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1507
1508Link	Europe/Zurich	Europe/Busingen
1509
1510# Georgia
1511# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1512# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1513# is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1514
1515# Gibraltar
1516# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1517Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1518			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14  2:00
1519			1:00	-	CET	1982
1520			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1521
1522# Greece
1523# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1524# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1525Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	S
1526Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
1527# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1528Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	S
1529# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1530Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
1531Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
1532Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
1533# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1534Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
1535Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
1536Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	S
1537Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
1538Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	S
1539Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
1540Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
1541Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
1542Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
1543Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	S
1544Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
1545Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
1546Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
1547# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1548Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
1549			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1550			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
1551			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
1552			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
1553			# Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1554			# go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
1555			2:00	EU	EE%sT
1556
1557# Hungary
1558
1559# From Michael Deckers (2020-06-09):
1560# an Austrian encyclopedia of railroads of 1913, online at
1561# http://www.zeno.org/Roell-1912/A/Eisenbahnzeit
1562# says that the switch [to CET] happened on 1890-11-01.
1563
1564# From Géza Nyáry (2020-06-07):
1565# Data for 1918-1983 are based on the archive database of Library Hungaricana.
1566# The dates are collected from original, scanned governmental orders,
1567# bulletins, instructions and public press.
1568# [See URLs below.]
1569
1570# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1571# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1918/?pg=238
1572# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1919/?pg=808
1573# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1920/?pg=201
1574Rule	Hungary	1918	1919	-	Apr	15	 2:00	1:00	S
1575Rule	Hungary	1918	1920	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 3:00	0	-
1576Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 2:00	1:00	S
1577# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1945/?pg=882
1578Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
1579Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
1580# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/Delmagyarorszag_1946_03/?pg=49
1581Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
1582# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/Delmagyarorszag_1946_09/?pg=54
1583Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00	0	-
1584# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/KulfBelfHirek_1947_04_1__001-123/?pg=90
1585# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DunantuliNaplo_1947_09/?pg=128
1586# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/KulfBelfHirek_1948_03_3__001-123/?pg=304
1587# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/Zala_1948_09/?pg=64
1588# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/SatoraljaujhelyiLeveltar_ZempleniNepujsag_1948/?pg=53
1589# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/SatoraljaujhelyiLeveltar_ZempleniNepujsag_1948/?pg=160
1590# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/UjSzo_1949_01-04/?pg=102
1591# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/KeletMagyarorszag_1949_03/?pg=96
1592# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/Delmagyarorszag_1949_09/?pg=94
1593Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
1594Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
1595# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1954/?pg=513
1596Rule	Hungary	1954	only	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	S
1597Rule	Hungary	1954	only	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
1598# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1955/?pg=398
1599Rule	Hungary	1955	only	-	May	22	 2:00	1:00	S
1600Rule	Hungary	1955	only	-	Oct	 2	 3:00	0	-
1601# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/HevesMegyeiNepujsag_1956_06/?pg=0
1602# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/EszakMagyarorszag_1956_06/?pg=6
1603# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/SzolnokMegyeiNeplap_1957_04/?pg=120
1604# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/PestMegyeiHirlap_1957_09/?pg=143
1605Rule	Hungary	1956	1957	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
1606Rule	Hungary	1956	1957	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
1607# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1980/?pg=189
1608Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
1609Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Sep	28	 1:00	0	-
1610# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1980/?pg=1227
1611# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/Delmagyarorszag_1981_01/?pg=79
1612# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1982/?pg=115
1613# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/DTT_KOZL_TanacsokKozlonye_1983/?pg=85
1614Rule	Hungary	1981	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
1615Rule	Hungary	1981	1983	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
1616#
1617# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1618Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Nov  1
1619			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
1620# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1941/?pg=1204
1621# https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/OGYK_RT_1942/?pg=3955
1622			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  7 23:00
1623			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
1624			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1984
1625			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1626
1627# Iceland
1628#
1629# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1630# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1631#
1632# (1993-12-05):
1633# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1634# Iceland Almanak.
1635#
1636# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1637# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1638# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavík mean solar time which
1639# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1640#
1641# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1642# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1643# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1644# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1645#
1646# (1993-12-10):
1647# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1648# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1649# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1650#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1651#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1652# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1653# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1654# might mean something else (???).
1655#
1656# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1657# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1658# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1659#
1660# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1661Rule	Iceland	1917	1919	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	-
1662Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
1663Rule	Iceland	1918	1919	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
1664Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Mar	19	23:00	1:00	-
1665Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Jun	23	 1:00	0	-
1666Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	-
1667Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Oct	29	 2:00	0	-
1668Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	-
1669Rule	Iceland	1940	1941	-	Nov	Sun>=2	 1:00s	0	-
1670Rule	Iceland	1941	1942	-	Mar	Sun>=2	 1:00s	1:00	-
1671# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1672Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	-
1673Rule	Iceland	1942	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
1674# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1675Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	-
1676# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1677Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
1678Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
1679Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
1680# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1681Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:28	-	LMT	1908
1682			-1:00	Iceland	-01/+00	1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1683			 0:00	-	GMT
1684
1685# Italy
1686#
1687# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1688# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1689# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1690# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1691# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1692# so record only the time in Rome.
1693#
1694# From Stephen Trainor (2019-05-06):
1695# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale/ORA_LEGALE_ESTIVA_IN_ITALIA.htm
1696# ... the [1866] law went into effect on 12 December 1866, rather than
1697# the date of the decree (22 Sep 1866)
1698# https://web.archive.org/web/20070824155341/http://www.iav.it/planetario/didastro/didastro/english.htm
1699# ... "In Italy in 1866 there were 6 railway times (Torino, Verona, Firenze,
1700# Roma, Napoli, Palermo). On that year it was decided to unify them, adopting
1701# the average time of Rome (even if this city was not yet part of the
1702# kingdom).  On the 12th December 1866, on the starting of the winter time
1703# table, it took effect in the railways, the post office and the telegraph,
1704# not only for the internal service but also for the public....  Milano set
1705# the public watches on the Rome time on the same day (12th December 1866),
1706# Torino and Bologna on the 1st January 1867, Venezia the 1st May 1880 and the
1707# last city was Cagliari in 1886."
1708#
1709# From Luigi Rosa (2019-05-07):
1710# this is the scan of the decree:
1711# http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/filopanti/1866c.jpg
1712#
1713# From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1714# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1715# ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1716# force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1717# the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1718#
1719# From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1720# The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1721# institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1722# http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
1723# [now at http://oldsite.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml as of 2017]
1724# (2016-10-24):
1725# http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1726# has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1727# there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1728# Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1729# of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1730#
1731# From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1732# Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1733# Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1734# Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1735# advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1736# Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1737#
1738# From Alois Treindl (2019-07-02):
1739# I spent 6 Euros to buy two archive copies of Il Messaggero, a Roman paper,
1740# for 1 and 2 April 1944.  The edition of 2 April has this note: "Tonight at 2
1741# am, put forward the clock by one hour.  Remember that in the night between
1742# today and Monday the 'ora legale' will come in force again."  That makes it
1743# clear that in Rome the change was on Monday, 3 April 1944 at 2 am.
1744#
1745# From Paul Eggert (2021-10-05):
1746# Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1747# for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1748# Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1749# to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1750# was effectively controlled by Germany.  Using C-Eur is consistent
1751# with Treindl's comment about Rome in April 1944, as the "Rule Italy"
1752# lines during German occupation do not affect Europe/Rome
1753# (though they do affect Europe/Malta).
1754#
1755# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1756Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	24:00	1:00	S
1757Rule	Italy	1916	1917	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	-
1758Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Mar	31	24:00	1:00	S
1759Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	24:00	1:00	S
1760Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Oct	 6	24:00	0	-
1761Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	24:00	1:00	S
1762Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Oct	 4	24:00	0	-
1763Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	S
1764Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Sep	18	24:00	0	-
1765Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	14	24:00	1:00	S
1766Rule	Italy	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
1767Rule	Italy	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
1768Rule	Italy	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
1769Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
1770Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
1771Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	1:00	S
1772Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	15	 1:00	0	-
1773Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
1774Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	 2:00s	0	-
1775Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	 0:00s	1:00	S
1776Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	 0:00s	0	-
1777Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
1778Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	 2:00s	0	-
1779Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
1780Rule	Italy	1966	only	-	Sep	24	24:00	0	-
1781Rule	Italy	1967	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	 0:00s	0	-
1782Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
1783Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	 0:00s	1:00	S
1784Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
1785Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
1786Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
1787Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
1788Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	 0:00s	1:00	S
1789Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
1790Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
1791Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
1792Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
1793Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	 0:00s	1:00	S
1794Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
1795Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
1796Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00s	0	-
1797# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1798Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Dec 12
1799			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1800			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1943 Sep 10
1801			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jun  4
1802			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
1803			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1804
1805# Kosovo
1806# See Europe/Belgrade.
1807
1808
1809Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
1810Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino
1811
1812# Latvia
1813
1814# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1815
1816# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1817# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1818# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1819# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1820#
1821# Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1822# according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1823# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1824# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1825# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1826#
1827# Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1828# according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1829# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1830# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1831# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1832# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1833#
1834# Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1835# according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1836# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1837# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1838# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1839# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1840# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1841# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1842# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1843# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1844#
1845# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1846# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1847# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1848
1849# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1850# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1851# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1852# 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1853# in Latvian for subscribers only).
1854
1855# From RFE/RL Newsline
1856# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1857# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1858# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1859# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1860# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1861# clocks one hour in the spring....
1862# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1863# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1864# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1865# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1866# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1867# appears that they will not do so....
1868
1869# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1870Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
1871Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
1872
1873# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1874# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1875# Go with Byalokoz.
1876
1877# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1878Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:34	-	LMT	1880
1879			1:36:34	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1880			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1881			1:36:34	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1  2:00
1882			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1919 May 22  3:00
1883			1:36:34	-	RMT	1926 May 11
1884			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
1885			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
1886			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
1887			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1888			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1889			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
1890			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2000 Feb 29
1891			2:00	-	EET	2001 Jan  2
1892			2:00	EU	EE%sT
1893
1894# Liechtenstein
1895
1896# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1897# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1898
1899# From Alois Treindl (2019-07-04):
1900# I was able to access the online archive of the Vaduz paper Vaterland ...
1901# I could confirm from the paper that Liechtenstein did in fact follow
1902# the same DST in 1941 and 1942 as Switzerland did.
1903
1904Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1905
1906
1907# Lithuania
1908
1909# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1910# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1911
1912# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1913# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1914# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1915
1916# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1917# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1918# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1919
1920# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1921# via Steffen Thorsen:
1922# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1923# to be valid here starting from October 31,
1924# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1925# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1926# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1927# already done by Estonia.
1928
1929# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1930# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1931# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1932
1933# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1934# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1935# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1936# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1937# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1938# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1939# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1940
1941
1942# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1943Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
1944			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1945			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1946			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
1947			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
1948			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
1949			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
1950			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
1951			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1952			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1953			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
1954			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1955			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1956			2:00	-	EET	2003 Jan  1
1957			2:00	EU	EE%sT
1958
1959# Luxembourg
1960# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1961# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1962# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1963Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
1964Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
1965Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	S
1966Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
1967Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
1968Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
1969Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	S
1970Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
1971Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
1972Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
1973Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	S
1974Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
1975Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	S
1976Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
1977Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	S
1978Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
1979Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	S
1980Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
1981Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
1982Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
1983Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
1984Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	S
1985Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
1986# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1987Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
1988			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
1989			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1990			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14  3:00
1991			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18  3:00
1992			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
1993			1:00	EU	CE%sT
1994
1995# North Macedonia
1996# See Europe/Belgrade.
1997
1998# Malta
1999#
2000# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
2001# Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
2002#
2003# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2004Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	S
2005Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
2006Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	S
2007Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
2008Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
2009Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
2010Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
2011# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2012Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
2013			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
2014			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
2015			1:00	EU	CE%sT
2016
2017# Moldova
2018
2019# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2020# the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
2021# http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
2022# ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
2023# time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
2024# plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
2025# adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
2026# time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
2027# reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
2028
2029# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2030# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
2031# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
2032# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
2033# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
2034# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
2035# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
2036# But [two people] separately reported via
2037# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
2038# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
2039#
2040# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
2041# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
2042# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
2043# to the Winter Time).
2044#
2045# News (in Russian):
2046# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
2047# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
2048#
2049# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
2050# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
2051#
2052# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
2053# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
2054# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
2055#
2056# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
2057#
2058# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
2059# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
2060# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
2061# decision to abolish DST this winter.
2062# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
2063# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
2064# News from Moldova (in russian):
2065# https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
2066
2067# From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
2068# http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
2069# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
2070# The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
2071# 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
2072# https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
2073# says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
2074# Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
2075
2076# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2077Rule	Moldova	1997	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
2078Rule	Moldova	1997	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
2079
2080# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2081Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1880
2082			1:55	-	CMT	1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
2083			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2084			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1940 Aug 15
2085			2:00	1:00	EEST	1941 Jul 17
2086			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 24
2087			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 May  6  2:00
2088			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992
2089			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
2090# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
2091			2:00	Moldova	EE%sT
2092
2093# Monaco
2094#
2095# From Michael Deckers (2020-06-12):
2096# In the "Journal de Monaco" of 1892-05-24, online at
2097# https://journaldemonaco.gouv.mc/var/jdm/storage/original/application/b1c67c12c5af11b41ea888fb048e4fe8.pdf
2098# we read: ...
2099#  [In virtue of a Sovereign Ordinance of the May 13 of the current [year],
2100#   legal time in the Principality will be set to, from the date of June 1,
2101#   1892 onwards, to the meridian of Paris, as in France.]
2102# In the "Journal de Monaco" of 1911-03-28, online at
2103# https://journaldemonaco.gouv.mc/var/jdm/storage/original/application/de74ffb7db53d4f599059fe8f0ed482a.pdf
2104# we read an ordinance of 1911-03-16: ...
2105#  [Legal time in the Principality will be set, from the date of promulgation
2106#   of the present ordinance, to legal time in France....  Consequently, legal
2107#   time will be retarded by 9 minutes and 21 seconds.]
2108#
2109# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2110Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1892 Jun  1
2111			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 29 # Paris Mean Time
2112			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
2113			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
2114			1:00	EU	CE%sT
2115
2116# Montenegro
2117# See Europe/Belgrade.
2118
2119# Netherlands
2120
2121# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
2122# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
2123
2124# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
2125# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
2126# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
2127# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
2128# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
2129# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
2130# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
2131# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
2132# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
2133#
2134# (2001-04-08):
2135# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
2136# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
2137# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
2138#
2139# (2001-04-09):
2140# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
2141# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
2142# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
2143# actually followed.
2144#
2145# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
2146# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
2147# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
2148# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
2149# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
2150#
2151# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
2152# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
2153# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
2154# Amsterdam mean time.
2155
2156# The data entries before 1945 are taken from
2157# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm
2158
2159# From Paul Eggert (2021-05-09):
2160# I invented the abbreviations AMT for Amsterdam Mean Time and NST for
2161# Netherlands Summer Time, used in the Netherlands from 1835 to 1937.
2162
2163# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2164Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
2165Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	AMT	# Amsterdam Mean Time
2166Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
2167Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
2168Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
2169Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	lastMon	2:00s	0	AMT
2170Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
2171Rule	Neth	1922	1936	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
2172Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
2173Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
2174Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
2175# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
2176# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
2177Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
2178Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
2179Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
2180Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
2181Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
2182Rule	Neth	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	-
2183Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	S
2184Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
2185Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
2186#
2187# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
2188# below because the current format requires STDOFF to be an integer.
2189# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2190Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:32 -	LMT	1835
2191			0:19:32	Neth	%s	1937 Jul  1
2192			0:20	Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
2193			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
2194			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
2195			1:00	EU	CE%sT
2196
2197# Norway
2198# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
2199# Pottenger.
2200# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2201Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	S
2202Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
2203Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
2204Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
2205Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
2206Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
2207Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	S
2208# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2209Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895 Jan  1
2210			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1940 Aug 10 23:00
2211			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
2212			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1980
2213			1:00	EU	CE%sT
2214
2215# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2216
2217# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2218# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2219# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2220# time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2221# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2222# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2223# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2224# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2225# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2226# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2227# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2228# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
2229# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
2230# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
2231# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
2232# since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
2233# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
2234# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
2235
2236# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
2237#
2238# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
2239# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
2240# keeping Berlin time.
2241#
2242# <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
2243# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
2244# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
2245# frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
2246# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
2247# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2248# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
2249#
2250# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
2251# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
2252# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
2253# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
2254# expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
2255# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
2256# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2257# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
2258# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
2259#
2260# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
2261# for these regions.
2262Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen
2263
2264# Poland
2265
2266# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
2267# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
2268
2269# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2270Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
2271Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
2272Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	S
2273# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2274Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
2275# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2276Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
2277Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
2278# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
2279# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2280# https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2281# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2282# He also gives these further references:
2283# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2284# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2285Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00s	1:00	S
2286Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
2287Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	2:00s	1:00	S
2288Rule	Poland	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
2289Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
2290Rule	Poland	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
2291Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	S
2292Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
2293Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	S
2294Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	S
2295Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
2296Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	S
2297Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
2298Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
2299# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2300Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
2301			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2302			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16  3:00
2303			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
2304			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23  2:00
2305			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
2306			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977
2307			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT	1988
2308			1:00	EU	CE%sT
2309
2310# Portugal
2311
2312# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2313# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2314# https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2315# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2316# Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett....
2317#
2318# From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15):
2319# article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...:
2320# These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which,
2321# according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins,
2322# all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ...
2323
2324# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2325# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2326# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2327#
2328# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2329# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2330# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2331#
2332# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2333# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2334# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2335# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2336# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2337# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2338# harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2339#
2340# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2341# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2342# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2343# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2344Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	S
2345# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2346Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
2347Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
2348Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
2349Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
2350Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
2351Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	S
2352Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
2353Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
2354Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
2355Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
2356Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
2357Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
2358Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
2359Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
2360Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
2361# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2362Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
2363Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
2364Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
2365# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2366Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
2367# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2368Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
2369Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
2370# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2371Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
2372Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
2373Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
2374# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2375Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
2376Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	S
2377# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2378Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
2379Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
2380Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	S
2381Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
2382Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	S
2383Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
2384Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	M
2385Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	S
2386Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	M
2387Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	S
2388Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
2389# Whitman says DST was not observed in 1950; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2390# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2391Rule	Port	1947	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
2392Rule	Port	1947	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
2393Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	S
2394Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
2395Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	S
2396Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
2397Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
2398Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
2399Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
2400Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
2401#
2402# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2403Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:45 -	LMT	1884
2404			-0:36:45 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
2405			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3  2:00
2406			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26  1:00
2407			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2408			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2409			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2410			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
2411# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2412Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884        # Ponta Delgada
2413			-1:54:32 -	HMT	1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT
2414			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2415			-2:00	Port	+00	1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2416			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2417			-2:00	Port	+00	1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2418			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2419			-2:00	Port	+00	1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2420			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2421			-2:00	Port	+00	1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2422			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1966 Apr  3  2:00
2423			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2424			-1:00	W-Eur	-01/+00	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2425			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2426			-1:00	EU	-01/+00
2427# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2428Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884        # Funchal
2429			-1:07:36 -	FMT	1912 Jan  1  1:00u # Funchal MT
2430			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2431			-1:00	Port	+01	1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2432			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2433			-1:00	Port	+01	1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2434			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2435			-1:00	Port	+01	1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2436			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2437			-1:00	Port	+01	1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2438			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1966 Apr  3  2:00
2439			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2440			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
2441
2442# Romania
2443#
2444# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2445# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2446# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2447# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2448# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2449# the same year as Bulgaria.
2450#
2451# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2452Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	S
2453Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
2454Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	S
2455Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	S
2456Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
2457Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
2458Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
2459Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
2460Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
2461# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2462Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
2463			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2464			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2465			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
2466			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
2467			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
2468			2:00	EU	EE%sT
2469
2470
2471# Russia
2472
2473# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2474# Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2475# (Government document
2476# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2477# in Russian)
2478# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2479# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2480# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2481# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2482
2483# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2484# Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2485# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2486# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2487
2488# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2489# Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2490# changed in September 2011:
2491#
2492# One source is
2493# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2494# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2495# 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2496#
2497# Another source is
2498# https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2499# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2500# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2501# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2502# in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2503# does not contain any "effective date" information.
2504#
2505# Another source is
2506# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2507# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2508# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2509# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2510#
2511# The Wikipedia article refers to
2512# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2513# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2514#
2515# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2516# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2517# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2518# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2519# Conradi notes).
2520#
2521# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2522#
2523# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2524
2525# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2526# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2527# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2528# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2529# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2530# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2531# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2532# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2533# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2534# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2535# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2536#
2537# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2538# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2539# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2540# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2541# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2542# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:
2543# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2544
2545# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2546# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2547# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2548# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2549# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2550#
2551# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2552# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2553# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2554# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2555# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2556#
2557# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2558# 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2559# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2560# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2561# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2562#
2563# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2564# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2565# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2566# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2567#
2568# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2569# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2570# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2571# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2572# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2573# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2574#
2575# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2576# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2577# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2578# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2579# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2580# since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2581# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2582# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2583
2584# From Marat Nigametzianov (2018-07-16):
2585# this is link to order from 1956 about timezone in USSR
2586# http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2011/11/novyie-granitsyi-chasovyih-poyasov-v-sssr/
2587#
2588# From Paul Eggert (2018-07-16):
2589# Perhaps someone could translate the above-mentioned link and use it
2590# to correct our data for the ex-Soviet Union.  It cites the following:
2591# «Поясное время и новые границы часовых поясов» / сост. П.Н. Долгов,
2592# отв. ред. Г.Д. Бурдун - М: Комитет стандартов, мер и измерительных
2593# приборов при Совете Министров СССР, Междуведомственная комиссия
2594# единой службы времени, 1956 г.
2595# This book looks like it would be a helpful resource for the Soviet
2596# Union through 1956.  Although a copy was in the Scientific Library
2597# of Tomsk State University, I have not been able to track down a copy nearby.
2598#
2599# From Stepan Golosunov (2018-07-21):
2600# http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2015/05/center-reforma-ischisleniya-vremeni-br-na-territorii-sssr-v-1957-godu-center/
2601# says that the 1956 decision to change time belts' borders was not
2602# implemented as planned in 1956 and the change happened in 1957.
2603# There is also the problem that actual time zones were different from
2604# the official time belts (and from many time belts' maps) as there were
2605# numerous exceptions to application of time belt rules.  For example,
2606# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Московское_время#Перемещение_границы_применения_московского_времени_на_восток
2607# says that by 1962 there were many regions in the 3rd time belt that
2608# were on Moscow time, referring to a 1962 map.  By 1989 number of such
2609# exceptions grew considerably.
2610
2611# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2612# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2613# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2614# are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2615# listing.  The region codes listed come from
2616# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2617# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2618# future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2619# divisions where available.
2620
2621# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2622# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2623# 39	RU-KGD	Kaliningrad Oblast
2624
2625# From Paul Eggert (2019-07-25):
2626# Although Shanks lists 1945-01-01 as the date for transition from
2627# +01/+02 to +02/+03, more likely this is a placeholder.  Guess that
2628# the transition occurred at 1945-04-10 00:00, which is about when
2629# Königsberg surrendered to Soviet troops.  (Thanks to Alois Treindl.)
2630
2631# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2632# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2633
2634# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2635# http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
2636# confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
2637# (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
2638# summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
2639# 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
2640# ...
2641# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2642# says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
2643# at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
2644# Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
2645
2646Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 -	LMT	1893 Apr
2647			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr 10
2648			 2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1946 Apr  7
2649			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2650			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2651			 3:00	-	+03	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2652			 2:00	-	EET
2653
2654
2655# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
2656# Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2657# Europe/Moscow covers...
2658# 01	RU-AD	Adygea, Republic of
2659# 05	RU-DA	Dagestan, Republic of
2660# 06	RU-IN	Ingushetia, Republic of
2661# 07	RU-KB	Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2662# 08	RU-KL	Kalmykia, Republic of
2663# 09	RU-KC	Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2664# 10	RU-KR	Karelia, Republic of
2665# 11	RU-KO	Komi Republic
2666# 12	RU-ME	Mari El Republic
2667# 13	RU-MO	Mordovia, Republic of
2668# 15	RU-SE	North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2669# 16	RU-TA	Tatarstan, Republic of
2670# 20	RU-CE	Chechen Republic
2671# 21	RU-CU	Chuvash Republic
2672# 23	RU-KDA	Krasnodar Krai
2673# 26	RU-STA	Stavropol Krai
2674# 29	RU-ARK	Arkhangelsk Oblast
2675# 31	RU-BEL	Belgorod Oblast
2676# 32	RU-BRY	Bryansk Oblast
2677# 33	RU-VLA	Vladimir Oblast
2678# 35	RU-VLG	Vologda Oblast
2679# 36	RU-VOR	Voronezh Oblast
2680# 37	RU-IVA	Ivanovo Oblast
2681# 40	RU-KLU	Kaluga Oblast
2682# 44	RU-KOS	Kostroma Oblast
2683# 46	RU-KRS	Kursk Oblast
2684# 47	RU-LEN	Leningrad Oblast
2685# 48	RU-LIP	Lipetsk Oblast
2686# 50	RU-MOS	Moscow Oblast
2687# 51	RU-MUR	Murmansk Oblast
2688# 52	RU-NIZ	Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2689# 53	RU-NGR	Novgorod Oblast
2690# 57	RU-ORL	Oryol Oblast
2691# 58	RU-PNZ	Penza Oblast
2692# 60	RU-PSK	Pskov Oblast
2693# 61	RU-ROS	Rostov Oblast
2694# 62	RU-RYA	Ryazan Oblast
2695# 67	RU-SMO	Smolensk Oblast
2696# 68	RU-TAM	Tambov Oblast
2697# 69	RU-TVE	Tver Oblast
2698# 71	RU-TUL	Tula Oblast
2699# 76	RU-YAR	Yaroslavl Oblast
2700# 77	RU-MOW	Moscow
2701# 78	RU-SPE	Saint Petersburg
2702# 83	RU-NEN	Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2703
2704# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2705# The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59
2706# (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time
2707# zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854
2708# specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT.
2709# No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date;
2710# later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are
2711# taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks.
2712# (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.)
2713
2714# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2715# 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
2716# Wikipedia refers to
2717# http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
2718# http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
2719#
2720# The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
2721# magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
2722# the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
2723# same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
2724# time belt changes map).
2725#
2726# The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
2727# introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
2728# border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
2729# Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
2730# according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
2731# "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
2732# belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
2733# 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
2734# supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
2735# hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
2736# is also provided.
2737#
2738# The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
2739# and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
2740# moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
2741# Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
2742# Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
2743# krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
2744# Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
2745# Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
2746# district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
2747# Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
2748# up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
2749# time.
2750#
2751# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2752# attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
2753# of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
2754# Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
2755# district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously.
2756#
2757# The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
2758# Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
2759#
2760# 12. Udmurtia
2761# The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
2762# Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
2763# Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
2764# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2765# implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
2766# Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
2767#
2768# ...
2769#
2770# All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
2771# 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
2772# change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
2773#
2774# There were some exceptions, though.
2775# Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
2776# Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
2777# change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
2778# lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
2779#
2780# And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
2781# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2782# says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
2783# 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
2784# https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
2785# says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
2786# 2 days before the switch.
2787#
2788#
2789# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2790# Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
2791# chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
2792# should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
2793# time in Moscow.
2794
2795# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2796# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2797# Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30")....
2798# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2799# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2800# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2801# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2802# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2803# coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" >
2804# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2805# 2:31:19 ...
2806#
2807# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2808# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2809# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2810# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2811# Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2812
2813Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:17 -	LMT	1880
2814			 2:30:17 -	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2815			 2:31:19 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2816			 3:00	Russia	%s	1921 Oct
2817			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
2818			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
2819			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2820			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2821			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2822			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2823			 3:00	-	MSK
2824
2825
2826# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2827# Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.
2828
2829Zone Europe/Simferopol	 2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
2830			 2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2831			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
2832			 3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
2833			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
2834			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
2835			 3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
2836			 2:00	-	EET	1992
2837# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2838#
2839# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2840# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2841# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2842# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2843# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2844# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2845# changed in May.
2846			 2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
2847# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2848			 3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2849			 3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2850# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2851# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2852			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997
2853			 3:00	-	MSK	1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2854# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2855# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2856# https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2857# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2858# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2859# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2860# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2861			 2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  2:00
2862			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2863			 3:00	-	MSK
2864
2865
2866# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2867# Europe/Astrakhan covers:
2868# 30	RU-AST	Astrakhan Oblast
2869#
2870# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2871
2872# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
2873# On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
2874# Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
2875# This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
2876# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2877# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056
2878
2879Zone Europe/Astrakhan	 3:12:12 -	LMT	1924 May
2880			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2881			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2882			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2883			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2884			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2885			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2886			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2887			 4:00	-	+04
2888
2889# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2890# Europe/Volgograd covers:
2891# 34	RU-VGG	Volgograd Oblast
2892# The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).
2893
2894# From Alexander Fetisov (2018-09-20):
2895# Volgograd region in southern Russia (Europe/Volgograd) change
2896# timezone from UTC+3 to UTC+4 from 28oct2018.
2897# http://sozd.parliament.gov.ru/bill/452878-7
2898#
2899# From Stepan Golosunov (2018-10-11):
2900# The law has been published today on
2901# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201810110037
2902
2903# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2020-11-27):
2904# The State Duma approved (Nov 24, 2020) the transition of the Volgograd
2905# region to the Moscow time zone....
2906# https://sozd.duma.gov.ru/bill/1012130-7
2907#
2908# From Stepan Golosunov (2020-12-05):
2909# Currently proposed text for the second reading (expected on December 8) ...
2910# changes the date to December 27. https://v1.ru/text/gorod/2020/12/04/69601031/
2911#
2912# From Stepan Golosunov (2020-12-22):
2913# The law was published today on
2914# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001202012220002
2915
2916Zone Europe/Volgograd	 2:57:40 -	LMT	1920 Jan  3
2917			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2918			 4:00	-	+04	1961 Nov 11
2919			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2920			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2921			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2922			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2923			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2924			 3:00	-	+03	2018 Oct 28  2:00s
2925			 4:00	-	+04	2020 Dec 27  2:00s
2926			 3:00	-	+03
2927
2928# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2929# Europe/Saratov covers:
2930# 64	RU-SAR	Saratov Oblast
2931
2932# From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11):
2933# Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4.
2934# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11):
2935# ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18.
2936# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22):
2937# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031
2938
2939Zone Europe/Saratov	 3:04:18 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2940			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2941			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2942			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2943			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2944			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2945			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2946			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Dec  4  2:00s
2947			 4:00	-	+04
2948
2949# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2950# Europe/Kirov covers:
2951# 43	RU-KIR	Kirov Oblast
2952# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2953#
2954Zone Europe/Kirov	 3:18:48 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2955			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2956			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2957			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2958			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2959			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2960			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2961			 3:00	-	+03
2962
2963# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2964# Europe/Samara covers...
2965# 18	RU-UD	Udmurt Republic
2966# 63	RU-SAM	Samara Oblast
2967
2968# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2969# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2970# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2971
2972Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:20 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2973			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2974			 4:00	-	+04	1935 Jan 27
2975			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2976			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2977			 2:00	Russia	+02/+03	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2978			 3:00	-	+03	1991 Oct 20  3:00
2979			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2980			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2981			 4:00	-	+04
2982
2983# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2984# Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
2985# 73	RU-ULY	Ulyanovsk Oblast
2986
2987# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2988
2989# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2990# Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
2991# Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
2992# 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
2993# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2994# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051
2995
2996Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk	 3:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2997			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2998			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2999			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3000			 2:00	Russia	+02/+03	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3001			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3002			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3003			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3004			 4:00	-	+04
3005
3006# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3007# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
3008# 02	RU-BA	Bashkortostan, Republic of
3009# 90	RU-PER	Perm Krai
3010# 45	RU-KGN	Kurgan Oblast
3011# 56	RU-ORE	Orenburg Oblast
3012# 66	RU-SVE	Sverdlovsk Oblast
3013# 72	RU-TYU	Tyumen Oblast
3014# 74	RU-CHE	Chelyabinsk Oblast
3015# 86	RU-KHM	Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
3016# 89	RU-YAN	Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
3017#
3018# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
3019# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
3020
3021# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
3022# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
3023# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
3024# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
3025
3026Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:33 -	LMT	1916 Jul  3
3027			 3:45:05 -	PMT	1919 Jul 15  4:00
3028			 4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
3029			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3030			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3031			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3032			 6:00	-	+06	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3033			 5:00	-	+05
3034
3035
3036# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3037# Asia/Omsk covers...
3038# 55	RU-OMS	Omsk Oblast
3039
3040# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
3041
3042Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:30 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
3043			 5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
3044			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3045			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3046			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3047			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3048			 6:00	-	+06
3049
3050# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
3051# Asia/Barnaul covers:
3052# 04	RU-AL	Altai Republic
3053# 22	RU-ALT	Altai Krai
3054
3055# Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
3056
3057# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
3058# Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
3059# http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
3060# suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
3061# 1995-05-28.
3062#
3063# https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
3064# has some historical data for Altai Krai:
3065# before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7
3066# after 1957: UT+7
3067# since 1995: UT+6
3068# http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
3069# confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.
3070
3071# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
3072# Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
3073# by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
3074# Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
3075# Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
3076# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
3077# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
3078# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038
3079
3080Zone Asia/Barnaul	 5:35:00 -	LMT	1919 Dec 10
3081			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
3082			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3083			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3084			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1995 May 28
3085			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3086			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3087			 6:00	-	+06	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3088			 7:00	-	+07
3089
3090# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
3091# Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
3092# 54	RU-NVS	Novosibirsk Oblast
3093
3094# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30):
3095# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6
3096# moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7.
3097# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04):
3098# The law was signed yesterday and published today on
3099# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064
3100
3101Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14  6:00
3102			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
3103			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3104			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3105			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
3106			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3107			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3108			 6:00	-	+06	2016 Jul 24  2:00s
3109			 7:00	-	+07
3110
3111# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
3112# Asia/Tomsk covers:
3113# 70	RU-TOM	Tomsk Oblast
3114
3115# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
3116# Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.
3117
3118# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
3119# Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
3120
3121# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
3122# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
3123# (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
3124# / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
3125# Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
3126# GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
3127# belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
3128# with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a
3129# 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).
3130
3131# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
3132# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
3133# This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
3134# from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
3135# 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
3136# the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
3137# and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
3138# before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
3139# recent changes).
3140#
3141# Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
3142# the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
3143# http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
3144# http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
3145# I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
3146# bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
3147# approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
3148# published as a law around 2016-04-26.
3149
3150# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26):
3151# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048
3152
3153Zone	Asia/Tomsk	 5:39:51 -	LMT	1919 Dec 22
3154			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
3155			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3156			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3157			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2002 May  1  3:00
3158			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3159			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3160			 6:00	-	+06	2016 May 29  2:00s
3161			 7:00	-	+07
3162
3163
3164# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3165# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
3166# 42	RU-KEM	Kemerovo Oblast
3167
3168# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
3169# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
3170# March 28, 2010:
3171# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
3172# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
3173#
3174# This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
3175# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
3176# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
3177#
3178# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
3179# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
3180# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
3181# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
3182# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
3183#
3184# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
3185# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
3186
3187# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3188# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
3189# realigning itself with KRAT.
3190
3191Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk	 5:48:48 -	LMT	1924 May  1
3192			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
3193			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3194			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3195			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3196			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3197			 7:00	-	+07
3198
3199# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3200# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
3201# 17	RU-TY	Tuva Republic
3202# 19	RU-KK	Khakassia, Republic of
3203# 24	RU-KYA	Krasnoyarsk Krai
3204#
3205# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
3206# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
3207
3208# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
3209
3210Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:26 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
3211			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
3212			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3213			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3214			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3215			 8:00	-	+08	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3216			 7:00	-	+07
3217
3218
3219# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3220# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
3221# 03	RU-BU	Buryatia, Republic of
3222# 38	RU-IRK	Irkutsk Oblast
3223#
3224# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
3225# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
3226
3227# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
3228# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
3229# Go with Byalokoz.
3230
3231Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:05 -	LMT	1880
3232			 6:57:05 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
3233			 7:00	-	+07	1930 Jun 21
3234			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3235			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3236			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3237			 9:00	-	+09	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3238			 8:00	-	+08
3239
3240
3241# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3242# Asia/Chita covers...
3243# 92	RU-ZAB	Zabaykalsky Krai
3244#
3245# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
3246# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
3247
3248# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
3249# [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
3250# Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
3251# be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
3252# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107
3253
3254Zone Asia/Chita	 7:33:52 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
3255			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
3256			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3257			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3258			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3259			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3260			 8:00	-	+08	2016 Mar 27  2:00
3261			 9:00	-	+09
3262
3263
3264# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3265# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
3266# 28	RU-AMU	Amur Oblast
3267#
3268# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3269# 14-02	****	Aldansky District
3270# 14-04	****	Amginsky District
3271# 14-05	****	Anabarsky District
3272# 14-06	****	Bulunsky District
3273# 14-07	****	Verkhnevilyuysky District
3274# 14-10	****	Vilyuysky District
3275# 14-11	****	Gorny District
3276# 14-12	****	Zhigansky District
3277# 14-13	****	Kobyaysky District
3278# 14-14	****	Lensky District
3279# 14-15	****	Megino-Kangalassky District
3280# 14-16	****	Mirninsky District
3281# 14-18	****	Namsky District
3282# 14-19	****	Neryungrinsky District
3283# 14-21	****	Nyurbinsky District
3284# 14-23	****	Olenyoksky District
3285# 14-24	****	Olyokminsky District
3286# 14-26	****	Suntarsky District
3287# 14-27	****	Tattinsky District
3288# 14-29	****	Ust-Aldansky District
3289# 14-32	****	Khangalassky District
3290# 14-33	****	Churapchinsky District
3291# 14-34	****	Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
3292
3293# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3294# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
3295# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
3296# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
3297
3298# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
3299
3300Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:58 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
3301			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
3302			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3303			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3304			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3305			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3306			 9:00	-	+09
3307
3308
3309# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3310# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
3311# 25	RU-PRI	Primorsky Krai
3312# 27	RU-KHA	Khabarovsk Krai
3313# 79	RU-YEV	Jewish Autonomous Oblast
3314#
3315# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3316# 14-09	****	Verkhoyansky District
3317# 14-31	****	Ust-Yansky District
3318
3319# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
3320# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
3321# Go with Byalokoz.
3322
3323Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:31 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
3324			 9:00	-	+09	1930 Jun 21
3325			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3326			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3327			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3328			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3329			10:00	-	+10
3330
3331
3332# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3333# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3334# 14-28	****	Tomponsky District
3335# 14-30	****	Ust-Maysky District
3336
3337# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3338# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
3339# in 2011.
3340
3341# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
3342# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
3343# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
3344# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
3345
3346Zone Asia/Khandyga	 9:02:13 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
3347			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
3348			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3349			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3350			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2004
3351			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3352			11:00	-	+11	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3353			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3354			 9:00	-	+09
3355
3356
3357# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3358# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
3359# 65	RU-SAK	Sakhalin Oblast
3360# ...with the exception of:
3361# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3362
3363# From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
3364# Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3365# (2016-03-09):
3366# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044
3367
3368# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
3369Zone Asia/Sakhalin	 9:30:48 -	LMT	1905 Aug 23
3370			 9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug 25
3371			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
3372			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3373			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
3374			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3375			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3376			10:00	-	+10	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3377			11:00	-	+11
3378
3379
3380# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3381# Asia/Magadan covers...
3382# 49	RU-MAG	Magadan Oblast
3383
3384# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3385# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
3386# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
3387# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
3388# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
3389# need their own zone.
3390
3391# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
3392# ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3393# will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
3394#
3395# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
3396# ... signed by the President today ...
3397# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038
3398
3399Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3400			10:00	-	+10	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3401			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3402			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3403			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3404			12:00	-	+12	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3405			10:00	-	+10	2016 Apr 24  2:00s
3406			11:00	-	+11
3407
3408
3409# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3410# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3411# 14-01	****	Abyysky District
3412# 14-03	****	Allaikhovsky District
3413# 14-08	****	Verkhnekolymsky District
3414# 14-17	****	Momsky District
3415# 14-20	****	Nizhnekolymsky District
3416# 14-25	****	Srednekolymsky District
3417#
3418# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
3419# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3420
3421# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
3422# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
3423# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
3424# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
3425# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
3426# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
3427
3428# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3429# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
3430# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
3431# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
3432#
3433# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
3434# districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
3435# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
3436# each!  (Yikes!)
3437# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
3438# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
3439# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
3440#
3441# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
3442# fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
3443# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
3444# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
3445# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
3446# in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
3447# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
3448# Go with Srednekolymsk.
3449
3450Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk	10:14:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3451			10:00	-	+10	1930 Jun 21
3452			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3453			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3454			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3455			12:00	-	+12	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3456			11:00	-	+11
3457
3458
3459# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3460# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3461# 14-22	****	Oymyakonsky District
3462
3463# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3464# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
3465# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
3466#
3467# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3468# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
3469# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
3470# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
3471# UTC+12 since at least then, too.
3472
3473Zone Asia/Ust-Nera	 9:32:54 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
3474			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
3475			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1981 Apr  1
3476			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3477			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3478			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3479			12:00	-	+12	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3480			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3481			10:00	-	+10
3482
3483
3484# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3485# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
3486# 91	RU-KAM	Kamchatka Krai
3487#
3488# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
3489# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
3490
3491# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
3492# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
3493Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1922 Nov 10
3494			11:00	-	+11	1930 Jun 21
3495			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3496			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3497			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3498			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3499			12:00	-	+12
3500
3501
3502# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3503# Asia/Anadyr covers...
3504# 87	RU-CHU	Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3505
3506Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3507			12:00	-	+12	1930 Jun 21
3508			13:00	Russia	+13/+14	1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3509			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3510			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3511			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3512			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3513			12:00	-	+12
3514
3515
3516# San Marino
3517# See Europe/Rome.
3518
3519# Serbia
3520# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3521Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
3522			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
3523			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
3524			1:00	-	CET	1945 May  8  2:00s
3525			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3526# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3527# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3528# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3529			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
3530			1:00	EU	CE%sT
3531Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
3532Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica	# Montenegro
3533Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo	# Bosnia and Herzegovina
3534Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje	# North Macedonia
3535Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb	# Croatia
3536
3537# Slovakia
3538Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3539
3540# Slovenia
3541# See Europe/Belgrade.
3542
3543# Spain
3544#
3545# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3546#
3547# The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3548# Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3549# Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3550# http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3551# As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3552# and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3553#
3554# In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for
3555# the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that
3556# the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart,
3557# with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to
3558# the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this
3559# directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a
3560# fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00.
3561
3562# From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15):
3563# The Royal Decree of 1900-07-26 quoted by Planesas, online at
3564# https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf
3565# says in its article 5 (my translation):
3566# These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the
3567# instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1,
3568# the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin.
3569
3570# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3571Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00	1:00	S
3572Rule	Spain	1918	1919	-	Oct	 6	24:00s	0	-
3573Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 6	23:00	1:00	S
3574Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00	1:00	S
3575Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	24:00s	0	-
3576Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
3577Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	24:00s	0	-
3578Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
3579Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	15	 0:00	1:00	S
3580Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
3581# Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28.
3582Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	Jun	16	23:00	1:00	S
3583Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	Oct	 2	24:00s	0	-
3584Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
3585Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	2:00	M
3586Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Oct	 2	24:00	1:00	S
3587# The following rules are for unified Spain again.
3588#
3589# Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on
3590# 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on
3591# 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not
3592# change during that period.
3593#
3594# The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain.
3595#Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00	1:00	S
3596Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Oct	 7	24:00s	0	-
3597Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	23:00	1:00	S
3598Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	 1:00	0	-
3599Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	S
3600Rule	Spain	1943	1944	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
3601Rule	Spain	1945	1946	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
3602Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
3603Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Oct	 2	 1:00	0	-
3604Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=12	23:00	1:00	S
3605Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
3606Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	S
3607Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
3608Rule	Spain	1977	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
3609Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
3610Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
3611# Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3612#Rule NatSpain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00	1:00	S
3613#Rule NatSpain	1937	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	24:00s	0	-
3614#Rule NatSpain	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00	1:00	S
3615# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978,
3616# except with "S" letters.
3617Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
3618Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
3619Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
3620Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
3621Rule SpainAfrica 1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
3622Rule SpainAfrica 1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
3623Rule SpainAfrica 1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
3624Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
3625Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
3626# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3627Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3628			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1940 Mar 16 23:00
3629			 1:00	Spain	CE%sT	1979
3630			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
3631Zone	Africa/Ceuta	-0:21:16 -	LMT	1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3632			 0:00	-	WET	1918 May  6 23:00
3633			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
3634			 0:00	-	WET	1924
3635			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
3636			 0:00	-	WET	1967 # Help zishrink.awk.
3637			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT	1984 Mar 16
3638			 1:00	-	CET	1986
3639			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
3640Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3641			-1:00	-	-01	1946 Sep 30  1:00
3642			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3643			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3644			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
3645# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3646# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
3647
3648# Sweden
3649
3650# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
3651#
3652# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
3653# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
3654# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
3655# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
3656# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
3657#
3658# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"
3659# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
3660# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
3661#
3662# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
3663# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
3664# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
3665# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
3666# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
3667# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
3668# 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
3669# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
3670#
3671# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
3672# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3673# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3674# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3675#
3676# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3677# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3678# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3679# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3680# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3681# the Sök-button).
3682#
3683# (2001-05-13):
3684#
3685# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3686# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3687# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3688# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3689# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3690# hour before the event took place.
3691#
3692# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3693
3694# An extra-special abbreviation style is SET for Swedish Time (svensk
3695# normaltid) 1879-1899, 3° west of the Stockholm Observatory.
3696
3697# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3698Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1879 Jan  1
3699			1:00:14	-	SET	1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3700			1:00	-	CET	1916 May 14 23:00
3701			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Oct  1  1:00
3702			1:00	-	CET	1980
3703			1:00	EU	CE%sT
3704
3705# Switzerland
3706# From Howse:
3707# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3708# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3709# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3710# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3711# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3712# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
3713# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
3714# From Shanks & Pottenger:
3715# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
3716# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
3717
3718# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3719# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3720#
3721# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3722# to be wrong. This is now verified.
3723#
3724# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3725# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3726# federal law collection)...
3727#
3728# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3729# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3730#
3731# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3732# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3733#
3734# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3735# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3736# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3737# other years are made.
3738#
3739# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3740# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3741# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3742# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3743#
3744# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3745# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3746# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3747# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3748#
3749# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3750# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3751# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3752#
3753# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3754#
3755# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3756# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3757# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3758# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3759# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3760# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3761#
3762# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3763# The Federal regulations say
3764# https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3765# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7° 26' 22.50".
3766# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3767
3768# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3769# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3770# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3771# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3772# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3773# hour before the beginning of service.
3774
3775# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3776# Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3777#
3778# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3779# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3780#
3781#	Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3782#	Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3783#	ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3784#
3785# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3786# agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3787# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3788# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3789# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3790# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3791# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3792# offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3793# (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3794# 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3795# legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3796
3797# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3798Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Mon>=1	1:00	1:00	S
3799Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Mon>=1	2:00	0	-
3800# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3801Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3802			0:29:46	-	BMT	1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3803			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
3804			1:00	EU	CE%sT
3805
3806# Turkey
3807
3808# From Alois Treindl (2019-08-12):
3809# http://www.astrolojidergisi.com/yazsaati.htm has researched the time zone
3810# history of Turkey, based on newspaper archives and official documents.
3811# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
3812# That source (Oya Vulaş, "Türkiye'de Yaz Saati Uygulamaları")
3813# is used for 1940/1972, where it seems more reliable than our other
3814# sources.
3815
3816# From Kıvanç Yazan (2019-08-12):
3817# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14539.pdf#page=24
3818# 1973-06-03 01:00 -> 02:00, 1973-11-04 02:00 -> 01:00
3819#
3820# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14829.pdf#page=1
3821# 1974-03-31 02:00 -> 03:00, 1974-11-03 02:00 -> 01:00
3822#
3823# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15161.pdf#page=1
3824# 1975-03-22 02:00 -> 03:00, 1975-11-02 02:00 -> 01:00
3825#
3826# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15535_1.pdf#page=1
3827# 1976-03-21 02:00 -> 03:00, 1976-10-31 02:00 -> 01:00
3828#
3829# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15778.pdf#page=5
3830# 1977-04-03 02:00 -> 03:00, 1977-10-16 02:00 -> 01:00,
3831# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
3832# 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
3833# 1979-04-01 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
3834# 1979-10-14 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
3835#
3836# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16245.pdf#page=17
3837# This cancels the previous decision, and repeats it only for 1978.
3838# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00, 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00
3839# (not applied due to standard TZ change below)
3840#
3841# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16331.pdf#page=3
3842# This decision changes the default longitude for Turkish time zone from 30
3843# degrees East to 45 degrees East.  This means a standard TZ change, from +2
3844# to +3.  This is published & applied on 1978-06-29.  At that time, Turkey was
3845# already on summer time (already on 45E).  Hence, this new law just meant an
3846# "continuous summer time".  Note that this was reversed in a few years.
3847#
3848# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18119_1.pdf#page=1
3849# 1983-07-31 02:00 -> 03:00 (note that this jumps TZ to +4)
3850# 1983-10-02 02:00 -> 01:00 (back to +3)
3851#
3852# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18561.pdf (page 1 and 34)
3853# At this time, Turkey is still on +3 with no spring-forward on early
3854# 1984.  This decision is published on 10/31/1984.  Page 1 declares
3855# the decision of reverting the "default longitude change".  So the
3856# standard time should go back to +3 (30E).  And page 34 explains when
3857# that will happen: 1984-11-01 02:00 -> 01:00.  You can think of this
3858# as "end of continuous summer time, change of standard time zone".
3859#
3860# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18713.pdf#page=1
3861# 1985-04-20 01:00 -> 02:00, 1985-09-28 02:00 -> 01:00
3862
3863# From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3864# 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3865#    no exceptions.
3866# 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3867# Here are official papers:
3868# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf#page=2 for 1986
3869# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf#page=4 for 1987
3870# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf#page=15 for 1988
3871# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf#page=6 for 1989
3872# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf#page=1 for 1990 - 1992
3873# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf#page=15 for 1993 - 1995
3874# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf#page=1 for overriding 1994
3875# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf#page=1 for 1996, 1997
3876# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf#page=10 for 1998 - 2000
3877# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001
3878# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006
3879# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
3880# Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for timestamps after 1985.
3881
3882# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3883# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3884# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3885# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3886# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3887# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3888# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3889# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3890# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3891
3892# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3893# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3894# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3895# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3896# https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3897# Turkish:
3898# https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464
3899
3900# From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3901# The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3902# Turkish Local election....
3903# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3904# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3905# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3906# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3907# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3908# change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3909# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3910# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3911# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3912# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3913# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3914# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3915
3916# From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3917# It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3918# Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3919# http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3920#
3921# From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3922# Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3923# government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3924# Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3925# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3926
3927# From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):
3928# Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....
3929# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf
3930#
3931# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):
3932# The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.
3933# It takes effect today, which is not much notice.
3934
3935# From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28):
3936# Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10.
3937# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf
3938#
3939# From Even Scharning (2017-11-08):
3940# ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous":
3941# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482
3942# From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08):
3943# Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like
3944# Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03.
3945
3946# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3947Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3948Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3949Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
3950Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
3951Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	S
3952Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
3953Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
3954Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
3955# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3956# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3957Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	S
3958Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3959Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3960Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3961Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 6	0:00	0	-
3962Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3963Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
3964Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3965Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
3966Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3967Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3968Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
3969Rule	Turkey	1947	1951	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
3970Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
3971Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	S
3972Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
3973# DST for 15 months; unusual but we'll let it pass.
3974Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
3975Rule	Turkey	1963	only	-	Oct	30	0:00	0	-
3976Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
3977Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3978Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	S
3979Rule	Turkey	1973	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=31	2:00	0	-
3980Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
3981Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	22	2:00	1:00	S
3982Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Mar	21	2:00	1:00	S
3983Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
3984Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
3985Rule	Turkey	1978	only	-	Jun	29	0:00	0	-
3986Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	2:00	1:00	S
3987Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	-
3988Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	1:00s	1:00	S
3989Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	1:00s	0	-
3990Rule	Turkey	1986	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
3991Rule	Turkey	1986	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
3992Rule	Turkey	1994	only	-	Mar	20	1:00s	1:00	S
3993Rule	Turkey	1995	2006	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
3994Rule	Turkey	1996	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
3995# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3996Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
3997			1:56:56	-	IMT	1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3998			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Jun 29
3999			3:00	Turkey	+03/+04	1984 Nov  1  2:00
4000			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	2007
4001			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  1:00u
4002			2:00	-	EET	2011 Mar 28  1:00u
4003			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  1:00u
4004			2:00	-	EET	2014 Mar 31  1:00u
4005			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2015 Oct 25  1:00u
4006			2:00	1:00	EEST	2015 Nov  8  1:00u
4007			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2016 Sep  7
4008			3:00	-	+03
4009Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.
4010
4011# Ukraine
4012#
4013# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
4014# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
4015# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
4016# regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
4017# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
4018# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
4019# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
4020
4021# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
4022# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
4023# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
4024#
4025# Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
4026# approval from 266 deputies.
4027#
4028# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
4029# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
4030#
4031# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
4032# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
4033#
4034# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
4035# https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
4036#
4037# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
4038# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
4039# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
4040# time this year after all.
4041#
4042# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
4043# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
4044# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
4045# to Russia) was reverted today:
4046# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
4047#
4048# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
4049# The law documents themselves are at
4050# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
4051
4052# From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
4053# First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
4054#       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
4055#       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
4056# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
4057# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
4058#
4059# They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
4060# "summer time" was still in action):
4061#       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
4062# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
4063# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
4064#
4065# Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
4066#       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
4067#
4068# DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
4069#       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
4070# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
4071# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
4072# This is an answer.
4073#
4074# Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
4075#       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
4076#       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
4077# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
4078# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
4079
4080# From Paul Eggert (2018-10-03):
4081# As is usual in tzdb, Ukrainian zones use the most common English spellings.
4082# For example, tzdb uses Europe/Kiev, as "Kiev" is the most common spelling in
4083# English for Ukraine's capital, even though it is certainly wrong as a
4084# transliteration of the Ukrainian "Київ".  This is similar to tzdb's use of
4085# Europe/Prague, which is certainly wrong as a transliteration of the Czech
4086# "Praha".  ("Kiev" came from old Slavic via Russian to English, and "Prague"
4087# came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
4088# in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
4089# controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
4090# English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
4091# means less disruption for our users.
4092
4093# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
4094# This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
4095Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
4096			2:02:04	-	KMT	1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
4097			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
4098			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 20
4099			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Nov  6
4100			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 Jul  1  2:00
4101			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29  3:00
4102			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
4103			2:00	EU	EE%sT
4104# Transcarpathia used CET 1990/1991.
4105# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
4106# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
4107Zone Europe/Uzhgorod	1:29:12 -	LMT	1890 Oct
4108			1:00	-	CET	1940
4109			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
4110			1:00	1:00	CEST	1944 Oct 26
4111			1:00	-	CET	1945 Jun 29
4112			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
4113			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
4114			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31  3:00
4115			2:00	-	EET	1992
4116			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
4117			2:00	EU	EE%sT
4118# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
4119# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
4120# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
4121# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
4122# portable Posix file names.
4123Zone Europe/Zaporozhye	2:20:40 -	LMT	1880
4124			2:20	-	+0220	1924 May  2
4125			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
4126			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Aug 25
4127			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Oct 25
4128			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00
4129			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
4130			2:00	EU	EE%sT
4131
4132# Vatican City
4133# See Europe/Rome.
4134
4135###############################################################################
4136
4137# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
4138# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
4139# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
4140#
4141# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
4142# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
4143# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
4144# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
4145# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
4146# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
4147
4148# ...
4149# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
4150# From: Tom Hofmann
4151# ...
4152#
4153# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
4154# most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
4155# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
4156# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
4157# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
4158# years...
4159# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
4160# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
4161# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
4162# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
4163#
4164# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
4165# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
4166#
4167# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
4168# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
4169# ...
4170
4171# ...
4172# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
4173# From: Dik T. Winter
4174# ...
4175#
4176# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
4177# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
4178# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
4179#
4180# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
4181# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
4182# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
4183# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
4184# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
4185# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
4186# dates...
4187#
4188# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
4189# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
4190# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
4191# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
4192# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
4193# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
4194# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
4195# in advance of normal time.
4196#
4197# ...
4198# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
4199# ...
4200
4201# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
4202# ...
4203# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
4204# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
4205# ...
4206# Monaco: has same DST as France.
4207# ...
4208