xref: /illumos-gate/usr/src/data/zoneinfo/asia (revision 06965442)
1# tzdb data for Asia and environs
2
3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
5
6# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
7# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
8# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
9# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
10
11# From Paul Eggert (2019-07-11):
12#
13# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
14# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
15# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
16# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
17#
18# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
19# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
20# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
21# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
22# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
23# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
24#
25# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
26# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
27# I found in the UCLA library.
28#
29# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
30# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
31# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
32#
33# For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
34# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
35# (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
36#
37# The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables
38# (corrections are welcome):
39#	     std  dst
40#	     LMT	Local Mean Time
41#	2:00 EET  EEST	Eastern European Time
42#	2:00 IST  IDT	Israel
43#	5:30 IST	India
44#	7:00 WIB	west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
45#	8:00 WITA	central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
46#	8:00 CST	China
47#	8:00 HKT  HKST	Hong Kong (HKWT* for Winter Time in late 1941)
48#	8:00 PST  PDT*	Philippines
49#	8:30 KST  KDT	Korea when at +0830
50#	9:00 WIT	east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
51#	9:00 JST  JDT	Japan
52#	9:00 KST  KDT	Korea when at +09
53# *I invented the abbreviations HKWT and PDT; see below.
54# Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03
55# and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier
56# editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every
57# offset, this did not reflect common practice.
58#
59# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
60
61# From Guy Harris:
62# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
63# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
64# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
65# Worldwide Edition).
66
67###############################################################################
68
69# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
70# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
71Rule	EUAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
72Rule	EUAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
73Rule	EUAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
74Rule E-EurAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	-
75Rule E-EurAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
76Rule E-EurAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
77Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	 0:00	1:00	-
78Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1983	-	Oct	1	 0:00	0	-
79Rule RussiaAsia	1984	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
80Rule RussiaAsia	1985	2010	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	-
81Rule RussiaAsia	1996	2010	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
82
83# Afghanistan
84# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
85Zone	Asia/Kabul	4:36:48 -	LMT	1890
86			4:00	-	+04	1945
87			4:30	-	+0430
88
89# Armenia
90# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
91# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
92# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
93# readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
94# when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
95# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
96# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
97# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
98# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
99
100# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
101# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
102# follow Russia's "old" rules.
103
104# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
105# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
106# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
107#
108# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
109# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
110# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
111# or
112# (brief)
113# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
114# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
115Rule Armenia	2011	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	-
116Rule Armenia	2011	only	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
117# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
118Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
119			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
120			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
121			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	1995 Sep 24  2:00s
122			4:00	-	+04	1997
123			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2011
124			4:00	Armenia	+04/+05
125
126# Azerbaijan
127
128# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
129# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
130# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
131# http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
132
133# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
134# ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
135# daylight saving time....
136# https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
137# http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
138# http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
139
140# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
141Rule	Azer	1997	2015	-	Mar	lastSun	 4:00	1:00	-
142Rule	Azer	1997	2015	-	Oct	lastSun	 5:00	0	-
143# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
144Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
145			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
146			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
147			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
148			4:00	-	+04	1996
149			4:00	EUAsia	+04/+05	1997
150			4:00	Azer	+04/+05
151
152# Bahrain
153# See Asia/Qatar.
154
155# Bangladesh
156# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
157# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
158# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
159#
160# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
161# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
162# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
163#
164# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
165# June
166# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
167# crippling power crisis. "
168#
169# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
170# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
171
172# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
173# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
174# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
175#
176# Some sources:
177# https://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
178# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
179#
180# Our wrap-up:
181# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
182
183# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
184# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
185# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
186# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
187#
188# No DST end date has been announced yet.
189
190# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
191# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
192# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
193#
194# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
195# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
196# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
197# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
198
199# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
200# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
201# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
202# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
203# "continue for an indefinite period."
204#
205# One of many places where it is published:
206# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
207
208# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
209# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
210# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
211#
212# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
213# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
214# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
215#
216# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
217# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
218# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
219# Minister's Office last night..."
220
221# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
222# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
223# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
224# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
225# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
226
227# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
228Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Jun	19	23:00	1:00	-
229Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Dec	31	24:00	0	-
230
231# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
232Zone	Asia/Dhaka	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
233			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
234			6:30	-	+0630	1942 May 15
235			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Sep
236			6:30	-	+0630	1951 Sep 30
237			6:00	-	+06	2009
238			6:00	Dhaka	+06/+07
239
240# Bhutan
241# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
242Zone	Asia/Thimphu	5:58:36 -	LMT	1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
243			5:30	-	+0530	1987 Oct
244			6:00	-	+06
245
246# British Indian Ocean Territory
247# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
248# 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
249# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
250# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
251# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
252# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
253Zone	Indian/Chagos	4:49:40	-	LMT	1907
254			5:00	-	+05	1996
255			6:00	-	+06
256
257# Brunei
258# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
259Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
260			7:30	-	+0730	1933
261			8:00	-	+08
262
263# Burma / Myanmar
264
265# Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
266
267# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
268# Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
269# used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
270# of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
271# a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
272
273# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
274Zone	Asia/Yangon	6:24:47 -	LMT	1880        # or Rangoon
275			6:24:47	-	RMT	1920        # Rangoon local time
276			6:30	-	+0630	1942 May
277			9:00	-	+09	1945 May  3
278			6:30	-	+0630
279
280# Cambodia
281# See Asia/Bangkok.
282
283
284# China
285
286# From Phake Nick (2020-04-15):
287# According to this news report:
288# http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2004-09-01/19524201403.shtml
289# on April 11, 1919, newspaper in Shanghai said clocks in Shanghai will spring
290# forward for an hour starting from midnight of that Saturday. The report did
291# not mention what happened in Shanghai thereafter, but it mentioned that a
292# similar trial in Tianjin which ended at October 1st as citizens are told to
293# recede the clock on September 30 from 12:00pm to 11:00pm. The trial at
294# Tianjin got terminated in 1920.
295#
296# From Paul Eggert (2020-04-15):
297# The Returns of Trade and Trade Reports, page 711, says "Daylight saving was
298# given a trial during the year, and from the 12th April to the 1st October
299# the clocks were all set one hour ahead of sun time.  Though the scheme was
300# generally esteemed a success, it was announced early in 1920 that it would
301# not be repeated."
302#
303# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
304Rule	Shang	1919	only	-	Apr	12	24:00	1:00	D
305Rule	Shang	1919	only	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	S
306
307# From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02):
308# The following comes from Table 1 of:
309# Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai.
310# Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50.
311# http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020
312# The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times.
313# Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding
314# zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power.
315
316# From Phake Nick (2020-04-15):
317#
318# For the history of time in Shanghai between 1940-1942, the situation is
319# actually slightly more complex than the table [below]....  At the time,
320# there were three different authorities in Shanghai, including Shanghai
321# International Settlement, a settlement established by western countries with
322# its own westernized form of government, Shanghai French Concession, similar
323# to the international settlement but is controlled by French, and then the
324# rest of the city of Shanghai, which have already been controlled by Japanese
325# force through a puppet local government (Wang Jingwei regime).  It was
326# additionally complicated by the circumstances that, according to the 1940s
327# Shanghai summer time essay cited in the database, some
328# departments/businesses/people in the Shanghai city itself during that time
329# period, refused to change their clock and instead only changed their opening
330# hours.
331#
332# For example, as quoted in the article, in 1940, other than the authority
333# itself, power, tram, bus companies, cinema, department stores, and other
334# public service organizations have all decided to follow the summer time and
335# spring forward the clock.  On the other hand, the custom office refused to
336# spring forward the clock because of worry on mechanical wear to the physical
337# clock, postal office refused to spring forward because of disruption to
338# business and log-keeping, although they did changed their office hour to
339# match rest of the city.  So is travel agents, and also weather
340# observatory.  It is said both time standards had their own supporters in the
341# city at the time, those who prefer new time standard would have moved their
342# clock while those who prefer the old time standard would keep their clock
343# unchange, and there were different clocks that use different time standard
344# in the city at the time for people who use different time standard to adjust
345# their clock to their preferred time.
346#
347# a. For the 1940 May 31 spring forward, the essay claim that it was
348# coordinared between the international settlement authority and the French
349# concession authority and have gathered support from Hong Kong and Xiamen,
350# that it would spring forward an hour from May 31 "midnight", and the essay
351# claim "Hong Kong government implemented the spring forward in the same time
352# on the same date as Shanghai".
353#
354# b. For the 1940 fall back, it was said that they initially intended to do
355# so on September 30 00:59 at night, however they postponed it to October 12
356# after discussion with relevant parties. However schools restored to the
357# original schedule ten days earlier.
358#
359# c. For the 1941 spring forward, it is said to start from March 15
360# "following the previous year's method", and in addition to that the essay
361# cited an announcement in 1941 from the Wang regime which said the Special
362# City of Shanghai under Wang regime control will follow the DST rule set by
363# the Settlements, irrespective of the original DST plan announced by the Wang
364# regime for other area under its control(April 1 to September 30). (no idea
365# to situation before that announcement)
366#
367# d. For the 1941 fall back, it was said that the fall back would occurs at
368# the end of September (A newspaper headline cited by the essay, published on
369# October 1, 1941, have the headlines which said "French Concession would
370# rewind to the old clock this morning), but it ultimately didn't happen due
371# to disagreement between the international settlement authority and the
372# French concession authority, and the fall back ultimately occurred on
373# November 1.
374#
375# e. In 1941 December, Japan have officially started war with the United
376# States and the United Kingdom, and in Shanghai they have marched into the
377# international settlement, taken over its control
378#
379# f. For the 1942 spring forward, the essay said that the spring forward
380# started on January 31. It said this time the custom office and postal
381# department will also change their clocks, unlike before.
382#
383# g. The essay itself didn't cover any specific changes thereafter until the
384# end of the war, it quoted a November 1942 command from the government of the
385# Wang regime, which claim the daylight saving time applies year round during
386# the war. However, the essay ambiguously said the period is "February 1 to
387# September 30", which I don't really understand what is the meaning of such
388# period in the context of year round implementation here.. More researches
389# might be needed to show exactly what happened during that period of time.
390
391# From Phake Nick (2020-04-15):
392# According to a Japanese tour bus pamphlet in Nanjing area believed to be
393# from around year 1941: http://www.tt-museum.jp/tairiku_0280_nan1941.html ,
394# the schedule listed was in the format of Japanese time.  Which indicate some
395# use of the Japanese time (instead of syncing by DST) might have occurred in
396# the Yangtze river delta area during that period of time although the scope
397# of such use will need to be investigated to determine.
398#
399# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
400Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
401Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Oct	12	24:00	0	S
402Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Mar	15	 0:00	1:00	D
403Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Nov	 1	24:00	0	S
404Rule	Shang	1942	only	-	Jan	31	 0:00	1:00	D
405Rule	Shang	1945	only	-	Sep	 1	24:00	0	S
406Rule	Shang	1946	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	D
407Rule	Shang	1946	only	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	S
408Rule	Shang	1947	only	-	Apr	15	 0:00	1:00	D
409Rule	Shang	1947	only	-	Oct	31	24:00	0	S
410Rule	Shang	1948	1949	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
411Rule	Shang	1948	1949	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	S #plan
412
413# From Guy Harris:
414# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
415
416# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
417# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
418# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
419# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
420# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
421# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
422#
423# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
424# painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
425# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
426#
427#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
428#     1987 mid-April - ??
429
430# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
431# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
432# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
433
434# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
435# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
436# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
437# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
438
439# From P Chan (2018-05-07):
440# The start and end time of DST in China [from 1986 on] should be 2:00
441# (i.e. 2:00 to 3:00 at the start and 2:00 to 1:00 at the end)....
442# Government notices about summer time:
443#
444# 1986-04-12 http://www.zj.gov.cn/attach/zfgb/198608.pdf p.21-22
445# (To establish summer time from 1986. On 4 May, set the clocks ahead one hour
446# at 2 am. On 14 September, set the clocks backward one hour at 2 am.)
447#
448# 1987-02-15 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198703.pdf p.114
449# (Summer time in 1987 to start from 12 April until 13 September)
450#
451# 1987-09-09 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198721.pdf p.709
452# (From 1988, summer time to start from 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-April
453# until 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-September)
454#
455# 1992-03-03 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1992/gwyb199205.pdf p.152
456# (To suspend summer time from 1992)
457#
458# The first page of People's Daily on 12 April 1988 stating that summer time
459# to begin on 17 April.
460# http://data.people.com.cn/pic/101p/1988/04/1988041201.jpg
461
462# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
463Rule	PRC	1986	only	-	May	 4	 2:00	1:00	D
464Rule	PRC	1986	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=11	 2:00	0	S
465Rule	PRC	1987	1991	-	Apr	Sun>=11	 2:00	1:00	D
466
467# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
468# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
469# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
470# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
471#
472# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
473# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
474# https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
475# boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
476# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
477# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
478# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
479# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
480# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
481# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
482
483# From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05):
484# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
485#
486# (1)
487# Guo Qing-sheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
488# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
489# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
490# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料). 2003;24(1):5-9.
491# http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZGKS200301000&dbname=CJFD2003
492# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
493# officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
494# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
495# been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
496# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
497# to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
498# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
499# could well have ignored any such mandate.
500#
501# (2)
502# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
503# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
504# [undated and unknown publication location]
505# It says several things:
506#   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
507#   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
508#     the official calendar book of 1914.
509#   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
510#     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
511#     Observatory and set to local mean time.
512#   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
513#   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
514#     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
515#     became used by railways as well.
516#   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
517#     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
518#     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
519#   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
520#     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
521#     Japanese-occupied territory.
522#   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
523#   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
524#     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
525#     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
526#   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
527#
528# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
529# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
530# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
531# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
532# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT +08.
533#
534# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
535# this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
536# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
537# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
538# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
539# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
540#
541# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT +08:30
542# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
543# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
544#
545# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT +08
546# Now part of Asia/Shanghai.
547# most of China
548# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
549# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT +08 "from the end of the 19th century".
550#
551# Long-shu Time (probably as Long and Shu were two names of the area) UT +07
552# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
553# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
554# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; east Qinghai; and the Guangdong
555# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
556# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
557#
558# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT +06
559# This region is now part of either Asia/Urumqi or Asia/Shanghai with
560# current boundaries uncertain; times before 1970 for areas that
561# disagree with Ürümqi or Shanghai are not recorded here.
562# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
563# the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
564# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
565# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
566# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
567# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
568# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
569# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
570#
571# Kunlun Time UT +05:30
572# This region is now in the same status as Xin-zang Time (see above).
573# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
574# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
575# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
576# and Yarkand.
577
578# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
579# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
580# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
581# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
582# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
583# they implicitly use Beijing time.
584#
585# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
586# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
587# hours behind Beijing time, or UT +06. The government of the Xinjiang
588# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
589# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
590# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
591# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
592# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
593#
594# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
595# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
596# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
597#
598# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
599# or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
600# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
601# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
602# others moving their clocks ahead.)
603
604# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
605# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
606# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
607#
608# 1. Wulumuqi...
609# 2. Kashi...
610# 3. Urumqi...
611# 4. Kashgar...
612# ...
613# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
614# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
615# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
616#
617# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
618# start date for Xinjiang time.
619#
620# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
621# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
622# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
623# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
624
625# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
626# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
627# https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
628
629# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
630# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
631# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
632# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
633# Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
634# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
635# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
636# and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
637# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
638# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
639# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
640# having the same time as Beijing.
641
642# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
643# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT +06)
644# but this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
645# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
646# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
647# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
648#
649# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
650# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
651# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
652# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
653# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
654# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
655# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
656# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
657# quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
658# UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
659# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
660# guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
661# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
662# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
663# +08 mandate back then.
664
665# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
666# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
667Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:43	-	LMT	1901
668			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949 May 28
669			8:00	PRC	C%sT
670# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
671# / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
672Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928
673			6:00	-	+06
674
675
676# Hong Kong
677
678# Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
679
680# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
681# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
682# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
683# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
684# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
685# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
686# think 3:30 is correct.
687
688# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
689# According to Singaporean newspaper
690# http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
691# the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
692#
693# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
694# Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
695# "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
696# (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
697# Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
698# <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
699# "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
700# of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
701# advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
702# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
703# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
704#
705# From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
706# An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
707# astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
708#
709# From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
710# Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
711# page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
712# ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
713# ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
714# of broadcasting the new local time.
715#
716# From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
717# According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
718# governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
719# make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
720# dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
721# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
722# See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
723
724# From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
725# I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
726# on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
727# stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
728# Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
729# probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
730# the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
731# Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
732# before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
733# the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
734# period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
735# same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
736# started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
737# explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
738# saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
739# also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
740# captured by Japan.
741#
742# Image of related sections on newspaper:
743# * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
744#   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
745# * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
746#   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
747#   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
748# * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
749#   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
750# * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
751#   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
752# * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
753#   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
754
755# From Paul Eggert (2019-07-11):
756# "Hong Kong winter time" is considered to be daylight saving.
757# "Hong Kong had adopted daylight saving on June 15 as a wartime measure,
758# clocks moving forward one hour until October 1, when they would be put back
759# by just half an hour for 'Hong Kong Winter time', so that daylight saving
760# operated year round." -- Low Z. The longest day: when wartime Hong Kong
761# introduced daylight saving. South China Morning Post. 2019-06-28.
762# https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/short-reads/article/3016281/longest-day-when-wartime-hong-kong-introduced
763
764# From P Chan (2018-12-31):
765# * According to the Hong Kong Daylight-Saving Regulations, 1941, the
766#   1941 spring-forward transition was at 03:00.
767#	http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/304271.pdf
768#	http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/305516.pdf
769# * According to some articles from South China Morning Post, +08 was
770#   resumed on 1945-11-18 at 02:00.
771#	https://i.imgur.com/M2IsZ3c.png
772#	https://i.imgur.com/iOPqrVo.png
773#	https://i.imgur.com/fffcGDs.png
774# * Some newspapers ... said the 1946 spring-forward transition was on
775#   04-21 at 00:00.  The Kung Sheung Evening News 1946-04-20 (Chinese)
776#	https://i.imgur.com/ZSzent0.png
777#	https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2FH7zGe%2FKF%2BFLYsuqGhRBfe p.4
778#   The Kung Sheung Daily News 1946-04-21 (Chinese)
779#	https://i.imgur.com/7ecmRlcm.png
780#	https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2BQBGt1%2BwUj5qG2GqtwR3Wh p.4
781# * According to the Summer Time Ordinance (1946), the fallback
782#   transitions between 1946 and 1952 were at 03:30 Standard Time (+08)
783#	http://oelawhk.lib.hku.hk/archive/files/bb74b06a74d5294620a15de560ab33c6.pdf
784# * Some other laws and regulations related to DST from 1953 to 1979
785#   Summer Time Ordinance 1953
786#	https://i.imgur.com/IOlJMav.jpg
787#   Summer Time (Amendment) Ordinance 1965
788#	https://i.imgur.com/8rofeLa.jpg
789#   Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (1966)
790#	https://i.imgur.com/joy3msj.jpg
791#   Emergency (Summer Time) Regulation 1973 <https://i.imgur.com/OpRWrKz.jpg>
792#   Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1977
793#	https://i.imgur.com/RaNqnc4.jpg
794#   Resolution of the Legislative Council passed on 9 May 1979
795#	https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr78-79/english/lc_sitg/hansard/h790509.pdf#page=39
796
797# From Paul Eggert (2020-04-15):
798# Here are the dates given at
799# https://www.hko.gov.hk/en/gts/time/Summertime.htm
800# as of 2020-02-10:
801# Year        Period
802# 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
803# 1942        Whole year
804# 1943        Whole year
805# 1944        Whole year
806# 1945        Whole year
807# 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
808# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Nov
809# 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
810# 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
811# 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
812# 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
813# 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
814# 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
815# 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
816# 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
817# 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
818# 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
819# 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
820# 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
821# 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
822# 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
823# 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
824# 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
825# 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
826# 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
827# 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
828# 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
829# 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
830# 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
831# 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
832# 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
833# 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
834# 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
835# 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
836# 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
837# 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
838# 1977        Nil
839# 1978        Nil
840# 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
841# 1980 to Now Nil
842# The page does not give times of day for transitions,
843# or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
844# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
845
846# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
847Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Apr	21	0:00	1:00	S
848Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Dec	1	3:30s	0	-
849Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Apr	13	3:30s	1:00	S
850Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Nov	30	3:30s	0	-
851Rule	HK	1948	only	-	May	2	3:30s	1:00	S
852Rule	HK	1948	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=28	3:30s	0	-
853Rule	HK	1949	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:30	1:00	S
854Rule	HK	1953	1964	-	Oct	Sun>=31	3:30	0	-
855Rule	HK	1954	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	3:30	1:00	S
856Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
857Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
858Rule	HK	1973	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	1:00	S
859Rule	HK	1979	only	-	May	13	3:30	1:00	S
860Rule	HK	1979	only	-	Oct	21	3:30	0	-
861# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
862Zone	Asia/Hong_Kong	7:36:42 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
863			8:00	-	HKT	1941 Jun 15  3:00
864			8:00	1:00	HKST	1941 Oct  1  4:00
865			8:00	0:30	HKWT	1941 Dec 25
866			9:00	-	JST	1945 Nov 18  2:00
867			8:00	HK	HK%sT
868
869###############################################################################
870
871# Taiwan
872
873# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
874# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
875# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
876# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
877
878# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
879# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
880# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
881# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
882# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
883# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
884# found on Wikisource:
885# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
886# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
887# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
888# declared officially.
889#
890# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
891# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
892# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
893# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
894# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
895# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
896# (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
897# be found on Wikisource:
898# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
899#
900# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UT+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
901
902# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
903# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UT+9
904# back to UT+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
905# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
906# zone back to Western Standard Time (UT+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
907# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
908# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
909# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
910# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
911# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
912# that:
913#
914# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
915# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
916#
917# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
918# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
919# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
920# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
921#
922# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
923# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
924# Time.
925#
926# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
927# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
928# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
929# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
930# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
931# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
932
933# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
934# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
935# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
936# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
937# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
938# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
939# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
940# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
941# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
942# would be a good one.
943# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
944# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
945
946# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
947# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
948# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
949#
950# Original Bulletin:
951# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
952# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
953#
954# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
955# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
956#
957# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
958#
959# Here is a brief translation:
960#
961#   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
962#   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
963#   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
964#
965# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
966# be found from historical government announcement database.
967
968# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
969# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT +09 from 1937-10-01
970# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
971# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
972
973# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
974Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
975Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
976Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
977Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
978Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
979Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
980Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
981Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
982Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
983Rule	Taiwan	1955	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
984Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
985Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
986Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
987Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	1:00	D
988Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
989
990# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
991# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
992Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896 Jan  1
993			8:00	-	CST	1937 Oct  1
994			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 21  1:00
995			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT
996
997# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
998#
999# From P Chan (2018-05-10):
1000# * LegisMac
1001#   http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt
1002#   A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in
1003#   Chinese and Portuguese.  The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for
1004#   searching decrees about summer time.
1005# * Archives of Macao
1006#   http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/
1007#   It contains images of old official gazettes.
1008# * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the
1009#   summer time history.  But it is not complete and has some mistakes.
1010#   http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm
1011# Macau adopted GMT+8 on 30 Oct 1904 to follow Hong Kong.  Clocks were
1012# advanced by 25 minutes and 50 seconds.  Which means the LMT used was
1013# +7:34:10.  As stated in the "Portaria No. 204" dated 21 October 1904
1014# and published in the Official Gazette on 29 October 1904.
1015# http://igallery.icm.gov.mo/Images/Archives/BO/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10_00025_Grey.JPG
1016#
1017# Therefore the 1911 decree of Portugal did not change time in Macau.
1018#
1019# From LegisMac, here is a list of decrees that changed the time ...
1020# [Decree Gazette-no. date; titles omitted in this quotation]
1021#	DIL 732 BOCM 51 1941.12.20
1022#	DIL 764 BOCM 9S 1942.04.30
1023#	DIL 781 BOCM 21 1942.10.10
1024#	PT 3434 BOCM 8S 1943.04.17
1025#	PT 3504 BOCM 20 1943.09.25
1026#	PT 3843 BOCM 39 1945.09.29
1027#	PT 3961 BOCM 17 1946.04.27
1028#	PT 4026 BOCM 39 1946.09.28
1029#	PT 4153 BOCM 16 1947.04.10
1030#	PT 4271 BOCM 48 1947.11.29
1031#	PT 4374 BOCM 18 1948.05.01
1032#	PT 4465 BOCM 44 1948.10.30
1033#	PT 4590 BOCM 14 1949.04.02
1034#	PT 4666 BOCM 44 1949.10.29
1035#	PT 4771 BOCM 12 1950.03.25
1036#	PT 4838 BOCM 43 1950.10.28
1037#	PT 4946 BOCM 12 1951.03.24
1038#	PT 5025 BO 43 1951.10.27
1039#	PT 5149 BO 14 1952.04.05
1040#	PT 5251 BO 43 1952.10.25
1041#	PT 5366 BO 13 1953.03.28
1042#	PT 5444 BO 44 1953.10.31
1043#	PT 5540 BO 12 1954.03.20
1044#	PT 5589 BO 44 1954.10.30
1045#	PT 5676 BO 12 1955.03.19
1046#	PT 5739 BO 45 1955.11.05
1047#	PT 5823 BO 11 1956.03.17
1048#	PT 5891 BO 44 1956.11.03
1049#	PT 5981 BO 12 1957.03.23
1050#	PT 6064 BO 43 1957.10.26
1051#	PT 6172 BO 12 1958.03.22
1052#	PT 6243 BO 43 1958.10.25
1053#	PT 6341 BO 12 1959.03.21
1054#	PT 6411 BO 43 1959.10.24
1055#	PT 6514 BO 11 1960.03.12
1056#	PT 6584 BO 44 1960.10.29
1057#	PT 6721 BO 10 1961.03.11
1058#	PT 6815 BO 43 1961.10.28
1059#	PT 6947 BO 10 1962.03.10
1060#	PT 7080 BO 43 1962.10.27
1061#	PT 7218 BO 12 1963.03.23
1062#	PT 7340 BO 43 1963.10.26
1063#	PT 7491 BO 11 1964.03.14
1064#	PT 7664 BO 43 1964.10.24
1065#	PT 7846 BO 15 1965.04.10
1066#	PT 7979 BO 42 1965.10.16
1067#	PT 8146 BO 15 1966.04.09
1068#	PT 8252 BO 41 1966.10.08
1069#	PT 8429 BO 15 1967.04.15
1070#	PT 8540 BO 41 1967.10.14
1071#	PT 8735 BO 15 1968.04.13
1072#	PT 8860 BO 41 1968.10.12
1073#	PT 9035 BO 16 1969.04.19
1074#	PT 9156 BO 42 1969.10.18
1075#	PT 9328 BO 15 1970.04.11
1076#	PT 9418 BO 41 1970.10.10
1077#	PT 9587 BO 14 1971.04.03
1078#	PT 9702 BO 41 1971.10.09
1079#	PT 38-A/72 BO 14 1972.04.01
1080#	PT 126-A/72 BO 41 1972.10.07
1081#	PT 61/73 BO 14 1973.04.07
1082#	PT 182/73 BO 40 1973.10.06
1083#	PT 282/73 BO 51 1973.12.22
1084#	PT 177/74 BO 41 1974.10.12
1085#	PT 51/75 BO 15 1975.04.12
1086#	PT 173/75 BO 41 1975.10.11
1087#	PT 67/76/M BO 14 1976.04.03
1088#	PT 169/76/M BO 41 1976.10.09
1089#	PT 78/79/M BO 19 1979.05.12
1090#	PT 166/79/M BO 42 1979.10.20
1091# Note that DIL 732 does not belong to "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" according to
1092# LegisMac.... Note that between 1942 and 1945, the time switched
1093# between GMT+9 and GMT+10.  Also in 1965 and 1965 the DST ended at 2:30am.
1094
1095# From Paul Eggert (2018-05-10):
1096# The 1904 decree says that Macau changed from the meridian of
1097# Fortaleza do Monte, presumably the basis for the 7:34:10 for LMT.
1098
1099# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1100Rule	Macau	1942	1943	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	-
1101Rule	Macau	1942	only	-	Nov	17	23:00	0	-
1102Rule	Macau	1943	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	S
1103Rule	Macau	1946	only	-	Apr	30	23:00s	1:00	D
1104Rule	Macau	1946	only	-	Sep	30	23:00s	0	S
1105Rule	Macau	1947	only	-	Apr	19	23:00s	1:00	D
1106Rule	Macau	1947	only	-	Nov	30	23:00s	0	S
1107Rule	Macau	1948	only	-	May	 2	23:00s	1:00	D
1108Rule	Macau	1948	only	-	Oct	31	23:00s	0	S
1109Rule	Macau	1949	1950	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	D
1110Rule	Macau	1949	1950	-	Oct	lastSat	23:00s	0	S
1111Rule	Macau	1951	only	-	Mar	31	23:00s	1:00	D
1112Rule	Macau	1951	only	-	Oct	28	23:00s	0	S
1113Rule	Macau	1952	1953	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	D
1114Rule	Macau	1952	only	-	Nov	 1	23:00s	0	S
1115Rule	Macau	1953	1954	-	Oct	lastSat	23:00s	0	S
1116Rule	Macau	1954	1956	-	Mar	Sat>=17	23:00s	1:00	D
1117Rule	Macau	1955	only	-	Nov	 5	23:00s	0	S
1118Rule	Macau	1956	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	03:30	0	S
1119Rule	Macau	1957	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	03:30	1:00	D
1120Rule	Macau	1965	1973	-	Apr	Sun>=16	03:30	1:00	D
1121Rule	Macau	1965	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=16	02:30	0	S
1122Rule	Macau	1967	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=16	03:30	0	S
1123Rule	Macau	1973	only	-	Dec	30	03:30	1:00	D
1124Rule	Macau	1975	1976	-	Apr	Sun>=16	03:30	1:00	D
1125Rule	Macau	1979	only	-	May	13	03:30	1:00	D
1126Rule	Macau	1979	only	-	Oct	Sun>=16	03:30	0	S
1127
1128# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1129Zone	Asia/Macau	7:34:10 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30
1130			8:00	-	CST	1941 Dec 21 23:00
1131			9:00	Macau	+09/+10	1945 Sep 30 24:00
1132			8:00	Macau	C%sT
1133
1134
1135###############################################################################
1136
1137# Cyprus
1138
1139# Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
1140# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
1141
1142# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09):
1143# Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's
1144# lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round.
1145# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/
1146#
1147# From Even Scharning (2016-10-31):
1148# Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night.
1149# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/
1150
1151# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1152# Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus
1153# staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A.
1154# Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17.
1155# https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/
1156
1157# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1158Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Apr	13	0:00	1:00	S
1159Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Oct	12	0:00	0	-
1160Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
1161Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	Oct	11	0:00	0	-
1162Rule	Cyprus	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
1163Rule	Cyprus	1977	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
1164Rule	Cyprus	1978	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	-
1165Rule	Cyprus	1979	1997	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
1166Rule	Cyprus	1981	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
1167# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1168Zone	Asia/Nicosia	2:13:28 -	LMT	1921 Nov 14
1169			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
1170			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
1171Zone	Asia/Famagusta	2:15:48	-	LMT	1921 Nov 14
1172			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
1173			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT	2016 Sep  8
1174			3:00	-	+03	2017 Oct 29 1:00u
1175			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
1176
1177# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
1178# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
1179Link	Asia/Nicosia	Europe/Nicosia
1180
1181# Georgia
1182# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
1183# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
1184# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
1185# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
1186# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
1187#
1188# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
1189# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
1190# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
1191# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
1192#
1193# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
1194#
1195# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
1196# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
1197# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
1198# ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
1199# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
1200# of integration into Europe.
1201
1202# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
1203# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
1204# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
1205# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
1206# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
1207# about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
1208# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
1209# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
1210# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
1211
1212# Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
1213# Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
1214# Go with Byalokoz.
1215
1216# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1217Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:11 -	LMT	1880
1218			2:59:11	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
1219			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
1220			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1221			3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04	1992
1222			3:00 E-EurAsia	+03/+04	1994 Sep lastSun
1223			4:00 E-EurAsia	+04/+05	1996 Oct lastSun
1224			4:00	1:00	+05	1997 Mar lastSun
1225			4:00 E-EurAsia	+04/+05	2004 Jun 27
1226			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
1227			4:00	-	+04
1228
1229# East Timor
1230
1231# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
1232
1233# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
1234# East Timor may be late for its millennium
1235# <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
1236# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
1237# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
1238# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
1239# conflicts with their way of life.
1240
1241# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
1242# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1243# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1244
1245# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1246# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1247# (2000-08-16):
1248# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1249# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1250# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1251# midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1252
1253# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1254Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
1255			8:00	-	+08	1942 Feb 21 23:00
1256			9:00	-	+09	1976 May  3
1257			8:00	-	+08	2000 Sep 17  0:00
1258			9:00	-	+09
1259
1260# India
1261
1262# British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
1263# "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
1264# The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
1265# east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
1266# given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
1267# chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
1268# that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
1269# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
1270# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
1271
1272# From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1273# https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1274# (2015-12-22):
1275# In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1276# outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1277# local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1278# dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1279
1280# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1281# Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1282# "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1283# measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1284# (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1285# and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1286# 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1287# "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1288# standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1289# Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1290# his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1291# of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change
1292# the time they are using, for that of what they regard as a benighted
1293# Presidency; while Madras, having for long given the standard time to the
1294# rest of India, would resist the adoption of any other Indian standard in its
1295# place." -- Oldham RD. On Time in India: a suggestion for its improvement.
1296# Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (April 1899), 49-55.
1297#
1298# "In 1870 ... Madras time - 'now used by the telegraph and regulated from the
1299# only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time,
1300# first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR)....
1301# Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their
1302# local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and
1303# Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145.
1304#
1305# Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8.
1306# https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212
1307# This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on
1308# 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some
1309# municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta
1310# continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at
1311# government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or
1312# at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more
1313# appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do
1314# elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
1315# consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
1316# time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
1317# 1941-1945 data.
1318
1319# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1320Zone	Asia/Kolkata	5:53:28 -	LMT	1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
1321			5:53:20	-	HMT	1870	    # Howrah Mean Time?
1322			5:21:10	-	MMT	1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
1323			5:30	-	IST	1941 Oct
1324			5:30	1:00	+0630	1942 May 15
1325			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
1326			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 15
1327			5:30	-	IST
1328# Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:
1329#	Andaman Is
1330#	Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
1331#	Nicobar Is
1332
1333# Indonesia
1334#
1335# From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
1336# The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
1337# civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
1338#
1339# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
1340# http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
1341# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
1342# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
1343# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
1344#
1345# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
1346# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
1347# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
1348# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
1349# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
1350# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
1351# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
1352# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
1353# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
1354# from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
1355# (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
1356# switched on 1945-09-23.
1357#
1358# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
1359# Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
1360# Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
1361# when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
1362# summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
1363# Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
1364# Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
1365# The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:
1366#
1367# WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
1368# WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
1369# WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
1370#
1371# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1372# Java, Sumatra
1373Zone Asia/Jakarta	7:07:12 -	LMT	1867 Aug 10
1374# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
1375# but this must be a typo.
1376			7:07:12	-	BMT	1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
1377			7:20	-	+0720	1932 Nov
1378			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Mar 23
1379			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
1380			7:30	-	+0730	1948 May
1381			8:00	-	+08	1950 May
1382			7:30	-	+0730	1964
1383			7:00	-	WIB
1384# west and central Borneo
1385Zone Asia/Pontianak	7:17:20	-	LMT	1908 May
1386			7:17:20	-	PMT	1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
1387			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Jan 29
1388			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
1389			7:30	-	+0730	1948 May
1390			8:00	-	+08	1950 May
1391			7:30	-	+0730	1964
1392			8:00	-	WITA	1988 Jan  1
1393			7:00	-	WIB
1394# Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
1395Zone Asia/Makassar	7:57:36 -	LMT	1920
1396			7:57:36	-	MMT	1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
1397			8:00	-	+08	1942 Feb  9
1398			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
1399			8:00	-	WITA
1400# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
1401Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
1402			9:00	-	+09	1944 Sep  1
1403			9:30	-	+0930	1964
1404			9:00	-	WIT
1405
1406# Iran
1407
1408# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
1409# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
1410# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
1411#
1412#	Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
1413#	No. 16760/T233 H				1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
1414#
1415#	The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
1416#
1417#	The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
1418#	based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
1419#	of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
1420#	and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
1421#	and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
1422#	for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1423#
1424#	The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1425#	at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1426#	to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1427#	Shahrivar.
1428#
1429#	First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1430#
1431# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1432# for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1433# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1434# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1435#
1436# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1437# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1438# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1439# leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1440# plan to change that law....
1441#
1442# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
1443# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1444# I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
1445# lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
1446# cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
1447# 2008-2087 range disagrees with the astronomical Persian calendar
1448# for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058), so
1449# the following code special-cases those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
1450# Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
1451# The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
1452# https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
1453# Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
1454# happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
1455# stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
1456# (cl-loop
1457#  initially (require 'cal-persia)
1458#  with first-persian-year = 1387
1459#  with last-persian-year = 1466
1460#  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
1461#  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
1462#  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
1463#  with range-start = nil
1464#  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
1465#  do
1466#  (let*
1467#      ((exceptional-year-offset
1468#        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
1469#       (beg-dst-absolute
1470#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
1471#           exceptional-year-offset))
1472#       (end-dst-absolute
1473#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
1474#           exceptional-year-offset))
1475#       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
1476#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
1477#           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
1478#       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
1479#       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
1480#       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
1481#                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
1482#       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
1483#       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
1484#    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
1485#    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
1486#                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
1487#              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
1488#      (insert
1489#       (format
1490#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
1491#        range-start range-end
1492#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
1493#        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
1494#      (insert
1495#       (format
1496#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
1497#        range-start range-end
1498#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
1499#        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
1500#      (setq range-start nil))))
1501#
1502# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1503# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1504# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1505# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1506# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1507# known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1508# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1509# no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1510# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1511# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1512# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1513# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1514# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1515#
1516# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1517# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1518# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1519#
1520# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1521# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1522# daylight saving time ...
1523# https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1524#
1525# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1526# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1527# Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1528# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1529# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1530# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1531# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1532# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1533#
1534# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1535Rule	Iran	1978	1980	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1536Rule	Iran	1978	only	-	Oct	20	24:00	0	-
1537Rule	Iran	1979	only	-	Sep	18	24:00	0	-
1538Rule	Iran	1980	only	-	Sep	22	24:00	0	-
1539Rule	Iran	1991	only	-	May	 2	24:00	1:00	-
1540Rule	Iran	1992	1995	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1541Rule	Iran	1991	1995	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1542Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1543Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1544Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1545Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1546Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1547Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1548Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1549Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1550Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1551Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1552Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1553Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1554Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1555Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1556Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1557Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1558Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1559Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1560Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1561Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1562Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1563Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1564Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1565Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1566Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1567Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1568Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1569Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1570Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1571Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1572Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1573Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1574Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1575Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1576Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1577Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1578Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1579Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1580Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1581Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1582Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1583Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1584Rule	Iran	2038	2039	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1585Rule	Iran	2038	2039	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1586Rule	Iran	2040	2041	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1587Rule	Iran	2040	2041	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1588Rule	Iran	2042	2043	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1589Rule	Iran	2042	2043	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1590Rule	Iran	2044	2045	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1591Rule	Iran	2044	2045	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1592Rule	Iran	2046	2047	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1593Rule	Iran	2046	2047	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1594Rule	Iran	2048	2049	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1595Rule	Iran	2048	2049	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1596Rule	Iran	2050	2051	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1597Rule	Iran	2050	2051	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1598Rule	Iran	2052	2053	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1599Rule	Iran	2052	2053	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1600Rule	Iran	2054	2055	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1601Rule	Iran	2054	2055	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1602Rule	Iran	2056	2057	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1603Rule	Iran	2056	2057	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1604Rule	Iran	2058	2059	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1605Rule	Iran	2058	2059	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1606Rule	Iran	2060	2062	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1607Rule	Iran	2060	2062	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1608Rule	Iran	2063	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1609Rule	Iran	2063	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1610Rule	Iran	2064	2066	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1611Rule	Iran	2064	2066	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1612Rule	Iran	2067	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1613Rule	Iran	2067	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1614Rule	Iran	2068	2070	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1615Rule	Iran	2068	2070	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1616Rule	Iran	2071	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1617Rule	Iran	2071	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1618Rule	Iran	2072	2074	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1619Rule	Iran	2072	2074	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1620Rule	Iran	2075	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1621Rule	Iran	2075	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1622Rule	Iran	2076	2078	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1623Rule	Iran	2076	2078	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1624Rule	Iran	2079	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1625Rule	Iran	2079	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1626Rule	Iran	2080	2082	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1627Rule	Iran	2080	2082	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1628Rule	Iran	2083	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1629Rule	Iran	2083	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1630Rule	Iran	2084	2086	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1631Rule	Iran	2084	2086	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1632Rule	Iran	2087	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
1633Rule	Iran	2087	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
1634#
1635# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
1636# These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
1637# restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
1638# At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1639# possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1640Rule	Iran	2088	max	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
1641Rule	Iran	2088	max	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
1642
1643# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1644Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
1645			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1646			3:30	-	+0330	1977 Nov
1647			4:00	Iran	+04/+05	1979
1648			3:30	Iran	+0330/+0430
1649
1650
1651# Iraq
1652#
1653# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1654# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1655# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1656# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1657# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1658#
1659# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1660# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1661# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1662# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1663# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
1664#
1665# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
1666
1667# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
1668# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1669# news sources (in Arabic):
1670# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1671# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1672#
1673# We have published a short article in English about the change:
1674# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1675
1676# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1677Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	-
1678Rule	Iraq	1982	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
1679Rule	Iraq	1983	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	-
1680Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	-
1681Rule	Iraq	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
1682Rule	Iraq	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	-
1683# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1684# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1685#
1686Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Apr	 1	3:00s	1:00	-
1687Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Oct	 1	3:00s	0	-
1688# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
1689Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
1690			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1691			3:00	-	+03	1982 May
1692			3:00	Iraq	+03/+04
1693
1694
1695###############################################################################
1696
1697# Israel
1698
1699# For more info about the motivation for DST in Israel, see:
1700# Barak Y. Israel's Daylight Saving Time controversy. Israel Affairs.
1701# 2020-08-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537121.2020.1806564
1702
1703# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1704#
1705# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1706# different abbreviations in use:
1707#
1708# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1709# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1710# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1711#
1712# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1713# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1714# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1715# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1716# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1717# settings in Israeli computers.
1718#
1719# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1720# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1721# family is from India).
1722
1723# From P Chan (2020-10-27), with corrections:
1724#
1725# 1940-1946 Supplement No. 2 to the Palestine Gazette
1726# # issue page  Order No.   dated      start        end         note
1727# 1 1010  729  67 of 1940 1940-05-22 1940-05-31* 1940-09-30* revoked by #2
1728# 2 1013  758  73 of 1940 1940-05-31 1940-05-31  1940-09-30
1729# 3 1055 1574 196 of 1940 1940-11-06 1940-11-16  1940-12-31
1730# 4 1066 1811 208 of 1940 1940-12-17 1940-12-31  1941-12-31
1731# 5 1156 1967 116 of 1941 1941-12-16 1941-12-31  1942-12-31* amended by #6
1732# 6 1228 1608  86 of 1942 1942-10-14 1941-12-31  1942-10-31
1733# 7 1256  279  21 of 1943 1943-03-18 1943-03-31  1943-10-31
1734# 8 1323  249  19 of 1944 1944-03-13 1944-03-31  1944-10-31
1735# 9 1402  328  20 of 1945 1945-04-05 1945-04-15  1945-10-31
1736#10 1487  596  14 of 1946 1946-04-04 1946-04-15  1946-10-31
1737#
1738# 1948 Iton Rishmi (Official Gazette of the Provisional Government)
1739# #    issue    page   dated      start       end
1740#11 2             7 1948-05-20 1948-05-22 1948-10-31*
1741#	^This moved timezone to +04, replaced by #12 from 1948-08-31 24:00 GMT.
1742#12 17 (Annex B) 84 1948-08-22 1948-08-31 1948-10-31
1743#
1744# 1949-2000 Kovetz HaTakanot (Collection of Regulations)
1745# # issue page  dated      start       end            note
1746#13    6  133 1949-03-23 1949-04-30  1949-10-31
1747#14   80  755 1950-03-17 1950-04-15  1950-09-14
1748#15  164  782 1951-03-22 1951-03-31  1951-09-29* amended by #16
1749#16  206 1940 1951-09-23 ----------  1951-10-22* amended by #17
1750#17  212   78 1951-10-19 ----------  1951-11-10
1751#18  254  652 1952-03-03 1952-04-19  1952-09-27* amended by #19
1752#19  300   11 1952-09-15 ----------  1952-10-18
1753#20  348  817 1953-03-03 1953-04-11  1953-09-12
1754#21  420  385 1954-02-17 1954-06-12  1954-09-11
1755#22  497  548 1955-01-14 1955-06-11  1955-09-10
1756#23  591  608 1956-03-12 1956-06-02  1956-09-29
1757#24  680  957 1957-02-08 1957-04-27  1957-09-21
1758#25 3192 1418 1974-06-28 1974-07-06  1974-10-12
1759#26 3322 1389 1975-04-03 1975-04-19  1975-08-30
1760#27 4146 2089 1980-07-15 1980-08-02  1980-09-13
1761#28 4604 1081 1984-02-22 1984-05-05* 1984-08-25* revoked by #29
1762#29 4619 1312 1984-04-06 1984-05-05  1984-08-25
1763#30 4744  475 1984-12-23 1985-04-13  1985-09-14* amended by #31
1764#31 4851 1848 1985-08-18 ----------  1985-08-31
1765#32 4932  899 1986-04-22 1986-05-17  1986-09-06
1766#33 5013  580 1987-02-15 1987-04-18* 1987-08-22* revoked by #34
1767#34 5021  744 1987-03-30 1987-04-14  1987-09-12
1768#35 5096  659 1988-02-14 1988-04-09  1988-09-03
1769#36 5167  514 1989-02-03 1989-04-29  1989-09-02
1770#37 5248  375 1990-01-23 1990-03-24  1990-08-25
1771#38 5335  612 1991-02-10 1991-03-09* 1991-08-31	 amended by #39
1772#			 1992-03-28  1992-09-05
1773#39 5339  709 1991-03-04 1991-03-23  ----------
1774#40 5506  503 1993-02-18 1993-04-02  1993-09-05
1775#			 1994-04-01  1994-08-28
1776#			 1995-03-31  1995-09-03
1777#41 5731  438 1996-01-01 1996-03-14  1996-09-15
1778#			 1997-03-13* 1997-09-18* overridden by 1997 Temp Prov
1779#			 1998-03-19* 1998-09-17* revoked by #42
1780#42 5853 1243 1997-09-18 1998-03-19  1998-09-05
1781#43 5937   77 1998-10-18 1999-04-02  1999-09-03
1782#			 2000-04-14* 2000-09-15* revoked by #44
1783#			 2001-04-13* 2001-09-14* revoked by #44
1784#44 6024   39 2000-03-14 2000-04-14  2000-10-22* overridden by 2000 Temp Prov
1785#			 2001-04-06* 2001-10-10* overridden by 2000 Temp Prov
1786#			 2002-03-29* 2002-10-29* overridden by 2000 Temp Prov
1787#
1788# These are laws enacted by the Knesset since the Minister could only alter the
1789# transition dates at least six months in advanced under the 1992 Law.
1790#				dated		start		end
1791# 1997 Temporary Provisions	1997-03-06	1997-03-20	1997-09-13
1792# 2000 Temporary Provisions	2000-07-28	----------	2000-10-06
1793#						2001-04-09	2001-09-24
1794#						2002-03-29	2002-10-07
1795#						2003-03-28	2003-10-03
1796#						2004-04-07	2004-09-22
1797# Note:
1798# Transition times in 1940-1957 (#1-#24) were midnight GMT,
1799# in 1974-1998 (#25-#42 and the 1997 Temporary Provisions) were midnight,
1800# in 1999-April 2000 (#43,#44) were 02:00,
1801# in the 2000 Temporary Provisions were 01:00.
1802#
1803# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1804# Links:
1805# 1 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537490&increment=687
1806# 2 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537490&increment=716
1807# 3 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537491&increment=721
1808# 4 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537491&increment=958
1809# 5 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537502&increment=558
1810# 6 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537511&increment=105
1811# 7 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537516&increment=278
1812# 8 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537522&increment=248
1813# 9 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537530&increment=329
1814#10 https://findit.library.yale.edu/images_layout/view?parentoid=15537537&increment=601
1815#11 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law12/er-002.pdf#page=3
1816#12 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law12/er-017-t2.pdf#page=4
1817#13 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0006.pdf#page=3
1818#14 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0080.pdf#page=7
1819#15 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0164.pdf#page=10
1820#16 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0206.pdf#page=4
1821#17 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0212.pdf#page=2
1822#18 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0254.pdf#page=4
1823#19 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0300.pdf#page=5
1824#20 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0348.pdf#page=3
1825#21 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0420.pdf#page=5
1826#22 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0497.pdf#page=10
1827#23 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0591.pdf#page=6
1828#24 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-0680.pdf#page=3
1829#25 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-3192.pdf#page=2
1830#26 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-3322.pdf#page=5
1831#27 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4146.pdf#page=2
1832#28 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4604.pdf#page=7
1833#29 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4619.pdf#page=2
1834#30 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4744.pdf#page=11
1835#31 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4851.pdf#page=2
1836#32 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-4932.pdf#page=19
1837#33 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5013.pdf#page=8
1838#34 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5021.pdf#page=8
1839#35 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5096.pdf#page=3
1840#36 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5167.pdf#page=2
1841#37 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5248.pdf#page=7
1842#38 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5335.pdf#page=6
1843#39 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5339.pdf#page=7
1844#40 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5506.pdf#page=19
1845#41 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5731.pdf#page=2
1846#42 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5853.pdf#page=3
1847#43 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-5937.pdf#page=9
1848#44 https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law06/tak-6024.pdf#page=4
1849#
1850# Time Determination (Temporary Provisions) Law, 1997
1851# https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/law19/p201_003.htm
1852#
1853# Time Determination (Temporary Provisions) Law, 2000
1854# https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/law19/p201_004.htm
1855#
1856# Time Determination Law, 1992 and amendments
1857# https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/law01/p201_002.htm
1858# https://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/Legislation/Laws/Pages/LawPrimary.aspx?lawitemid=2001174
1859
1860# From Paul Eggert (2020-10-27):
1861# Several of the midnight transitions mentioned above are ambiguous;
1862# are they 00:00, 00:00s, 24:00, or 24:00s?  When resolving these ambiguities,
1863# try to minimize changes from previous tzdb versions, for lack of better info.
1864# Commentary from previous versions is included below, to help explain this.
1865
1866# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1867Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	May	31	24:00u	1:00	D
1868Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Sep	30	24:00u	0	S
1869Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Nov	16	24:00u	1:00	D
1870Rule	Zion	1942	1946	-	Oct	31	24:00u	0	S
1871Rule	Zion	1943	1944	-	Mar	31	24:00u	1:00	D
1872Rule	Zion	1945	1946	-	Apr	15	24:00u	1:00	D
1873Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	May	22	24:00u	2:00	DD
1874Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	Aug	31	24:00u	1:00	D
1875Rule	Zion	1948	1949	-	Oct	31	24:00u	0	S
1876Rule	Zion	1949	only	-	Apr	30	24:00u	1:00	D
1877Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Apr	15	24:00u	1:00	D
1878Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Sep	14	24:00u	0	S
1879Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Mar	31	24:00u	1:00	D
1880Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Nov	10	24:00u	0	S
1881Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Apr	19	24:00u	1:00	D
1882Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Oct	18	24:00u	0	S
1883Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Apr	11	24:00u	1:00	D
1884Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Sep	12	24:00u	0	S
1885Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Jun	12	24:00u	1:00	D
1886Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Sep	11	24:00u	0	S
1887Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Jun	11	24:00u	1:00	D
1888Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Sep	10	24:00u	0	S
1889Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Jun	 2	24:00u	1:00	D
1890Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Sep	29	24:00u	0	S
1891Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Apr	27	24:00u	1:00	D
1892Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Sep	21	24:00u	0	S
1893Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Jul	 6	24:00	1:00	D
1894Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Oct	12	24:00	0	S
1895Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Apr	19	24:00	1:00	D
1896Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Aug	30	24:00	0	S
1897
1898# From Alois Treindl (2019-03-06):
1899# http://www.moin.gov.il/Documents/שעון%20קיץ/clock-50-years-7-2014.pdf
1900# From Isaac Starkman (2019-03-06):
1901# Summer time was in that period in 1980 and 1984, see
1902# https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3951073,00.html
1903# You can of course read it in translation.
1904# I checked the local newspapers for that years.
1905# It started on midnight and end at 01.00 am.
1906# From Paul Eggert (2019-03-06):
1907# Also see this thread about the moin.gov.il URL:
1908# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-November/027194.html
1909Rule	Zion	1980	only	-	Aug	 2	24:00s	1:00	D
1910Rule	Zion	1980	only	-	Sep	13	24:00s	0	S
1911Rule	Zion	1984	only	-	May	 5	24:00s	1:00	D
1912Rule	Zion	1984	only	-	Aug	25	24:00s	0	S
1913
1914Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Apr	13	24:00	1:00	D
1915Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Aug	31	24:00	0	S
1916Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	May	17	24:00	1:00	D
1917Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	Sep	 6	24:00	0	S
1918Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Apr	14	24:00	1:00	D
1919Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Sep	12	24:00	0	S
1920
1921# From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1922# I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1923# [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1924# ends and changes to Sunday.
1925Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Apr	 9	24:00	1:00	D
1926Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Sep	 3	24:00	0	S
1927
1928# From Ephraim Silverberg
1929# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1930# and 2005-02-17):
1931
1932# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1933# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1934# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1935# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
1936# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1937# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1938# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1939# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1940# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1941# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
1942# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1943# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1944# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1945# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1946# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1947# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
1948# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1949# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1950# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1951# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1952# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1953# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1954
1955# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1956Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	29	24:00	1:00	D
1957Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 2	24:00	0	S
1958Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	24	24:00	1:00	D
1959Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	25	24:00	0	S
1960Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	23	24:00	1:00	D
1961Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Aug	31	24:00	0	S
1962Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Mar	28	24:00	1:00	D
1963Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Sep	 5	24:00	0	S
1964Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	D
1965Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0	S
1966
1967# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1968# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
1969# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1970
1971# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1972Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
1973Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Aug	28	0:00	0	S
1974Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
1975Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
1976
1977# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1978# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1979# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1980#
1981#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
1982#
1983# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1984#
1985# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1986#
1987#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
1988#
1989#       where YYYY is the relevant year.
1990
1991# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
1992Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Mar	14	24:00	1:00	D
1993Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Sep	15	24:00	0	S
1994Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	D
1995Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Sep	13	24:00	0	S
1996Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	D
1997Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
1998Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	D
1999Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Sep	 3	2:00	0	S
2000
2001# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
2002# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
2003# years 2001-2004 as well.
2004#
2005# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
2006#
2007#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
2008#
2009# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
2010# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
2011#
2012#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
2013
2014# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2015Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
2016Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Oct	 6	1:00	0	S
2017Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Apr	 9	1:00	1:00	D
2018Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Sep	24	1:00	0	S
2019Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Mar	29	1:00	1:00	D
2020Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Oct	 7	1:00	0	S
2021Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Mar	28	1:00	1:00	D
2022Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Oct	 3	1:00	0	S
2023Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Apr	 7	1:00	1:00	D
2024Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Sep	22	1:00	0	S
2025
2026# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
2027# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
2028# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
2029# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
2030# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
2031#
2032# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
2033#
2034#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
2035
2036# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2037Rule	Zion	2005	2012	-	Apr	Fri<=1	2:00	1:00	D
2038Rule	Zion	2005	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	0	S
2039Rule	Zion	2006	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00	0	S
2040Rule	Zion	2007	only	-	Sep	16	2:00	0	S
2041Rule	Zion	2008	only	-	Oct	 5	2:00	0	S
2042Rule	Zion	2009	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	0	S
2043Rule	Zion	2010	only	-	Sep	12	2:00	0	S
2044Rule	Zion	2011	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	S
2045Rule	Zion	2012	only	-	Sep	23	2:00	0	S
2046
2047# From Ephraim Silverberg (2020-10-26):
2048# The current time law (2013) from the State of Israel can be viewed
2049# (in Hebrew) at:
2050# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/israel/announcements/2013+law.pdf
2051# It translates to:
2052# Every year, in the period from the Friday before the last Sunday in
2053# the month of March at 02:00 a.m. until the last Sunday of the month
2054# of October at 02:00 a.m., Israel Time will be advanced an additional
2055# hour such that it will be UTC+3.
2056
2057# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2058Rule	Zion	2013	max	-	Mar	Fri>=23	2:00	1:00	D
2059Rule	Zion	2013	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
2060
2061# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2062Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:54 -	LMT	1880
2063			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
2064			2:00	Zion	I%sT
2065
2066
2067
2068###############################################################################
2069
2070# Japan
2071
2072# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
2073
2074# From Paul Eggert (2020-01-19):
2075# Starting in the 7th century, Japan generally followed an ancient Chinese
2076# timekeeping system that divided night and day into six hours each,
2077# with hour length depending on season.  In 1873 the government
2078# started requiring the use of a Western style 24-hour clock.  See:
2079# Yulia Frumer, "Making Time: Astronomical Time Measurement in Tokugawa Japan"
2080# <https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1043907065>.  As the tzdb code and
2081# data support only 24-hour clocks, its tables model timestamps before
2082# 1873 using Western-style local mean time.
2083
2084# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
2085# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
2086# Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.
2087# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
2088# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
2089# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
2090# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
2091
2092# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
2093# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
2094# which stands for the time on 135° E.
2095# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
2096# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
2097# time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard
2098# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
2099# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
2100# standard....
2101#
2102# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
2103# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
2104
2105# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
2106# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
2107# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
2108# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
2109#
2110# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
2111# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
2112# Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
2113# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
2114
2115# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
2116# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
2117# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
2118# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
2119
2120# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
2121# http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
2122# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
2123# [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
2124# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
2125# deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
2126# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
2127# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
2128# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
2129# wanted to keep it.)
2130
2131# From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19):
2132# The source of information is Japanese law.
2133# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm
2134# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm
2135# ... In summary, it is written as follows.  From 24:00 on the first Saturday
2136# in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September.
2137
2138# From Phake Nick (2018-09-27):
2139# [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
2140# https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html
2141# ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September
2142# 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time.
2143# It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed
2144# during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation
2145# of the summer time is described in the document.
2146# https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf
2147# The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at
2148# September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can
2149# change the clock before they sleep.
2150#
2151# From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27):
2152# This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that.  zic treats
2153# it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can
2154# do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
2155# which should be safe now.
2156
2157# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2158Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
2159Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=8	25:00	0	S
2160Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
2161Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
2162
2163# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2164Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:18:59	-	LMT	1887 Dec 31 15:00u
2165			9:00	Japan	J%sT
2166# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
2167# except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
2168# switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
2169
2170# Jordan
2171#
2172# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
2173# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
2174# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
2175# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
2176# all year round.
2177#
2178# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
2179# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
2180# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
2181# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
2182# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
2183# government's departments from six to seven hours.
2184#
2185# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2186# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2187#
2188# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2189# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
2190# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
2191#
2192# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
2193# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
2194# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
2195#
2196
2197# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
2198# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
2199# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
2200#
2201# Google's translation:
2202#
2203# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
2204# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
2205# > of the month of March of each year.
2206#
2207# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
2208
2209# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
2210# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
2211
2212# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
2213# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
2214# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
2215# until about the same time next year (at least).
2216# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
2217
2218# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
2219# Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
2220# UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
2221# http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
2222# Official, in Arabic:
2223# http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
2224# ... Our background/permalink about it
2225# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
2226# ...
2227# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
2228# ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
2229# (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
2230
2231# From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
2232# As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
2233
2234# From Steffen Thorsen (2021-09-24):
2235# The Jordanian Government announced yesterday that they will start DST
2236# in February instead of March:
2237# https://petra.gov.jo/Include/InnerPage.jsp?ID=37683&lang=en&name=en_news (English)
2238# https://petra.gov.jo/Include/InnerPage.jsp?ID=189969&lang=ar&name=news (Arabic)
2239# From the Arabic version, it seems to say it would be at midnight
2240# (assume 24:00) on the last Thursday in February, starting from 2022.
2241
2242# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2243Rule	Jordan	1973	only	-	Jun	6	0:00	1:00	S
2244Rule	Jordan	1973	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2245Rule	Jordan	1974	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
2246Rule	Jordan	1976	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
2247Rule	Jordan	1977	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2248Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
2249Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
2250Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
2251Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2252Rule	Jordan	1986	1988	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
2253Rule	Jordan	1986	1990	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
2254Rule	Jordan	1989	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	S
2255Rule	Jordan	1990	only	-	Apr	27	0:00	1:00	S
2256Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Apr	17	0:00	1:00	S
2257Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
2258Rule	Jordan	1992	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
2259Rule	Jordan	1992	1993	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
2260Rule	Jordan	1993	1998	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
2261Rule	Jordan	1994	only	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
2262Rule	Jordan	1995	1998	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00s	0	-
2263Rule	Jordan	1999	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
2264Rule	Jordan	1999	2002	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
2265Rule	Jordan	2000	2001	-	Mar	lastThu	0:00s	1:00	S
2266Rule	Jordan	2002	2012	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
2267Rule	Jordan	2003	only	-	Oct	24	0:00s	0	-
2268Rule	Jordan	2004	only	-	Oct	15	0:00s	0	-
2269Rule	Jordan	2005	only	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
2270Rule	Jordan	2006	2011	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
2271Rule	Jordan	2013	only	-	Dec	20	0:00	0	-
2272Rule	Jordan	2014	2021	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
2273Rule	Jordan	2014	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
2274Rule	Jordan	2022	max	-	Feb	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
2275# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2276Zone	Asia/Amman	2:23:44 -	LMT	1931
2277			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT
2278
2279
2280# Kazakhstan
2281
2282# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
2283# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
2284# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
2285# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
2286# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
2287#
2288# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
2289# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
2290# was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
2291# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
2292# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
2293# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū,
2294# Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
2295# everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
2296# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
2297
2298# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
2299# Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
2300# produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
2301#
2302# 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
2303# from 1991-02-04 No. 20
2304# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
2305# removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
2306# starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
2307# It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
2308# Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
2309#
2310# The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
2311# of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
2312# of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
2313# text.
2314#
2315# According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
2316# -- page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
2317# http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564 -- on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
2318# transition to "summer" time:
2319# Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
2320# Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
2321# were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
2322# Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
2323# SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
2324# of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
2325# Other territories were to not move clocks.
2326# When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
2327# moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
2328# Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
2329#
2330# Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
2331# was one of such changes.
2332#
2333# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное_время
2334# claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
2335# Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
2336# were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
2337# forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
2338# (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
2339# article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
2340# move clocks.)
2341#
2342# This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
2343# the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
2344# to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth
2345# time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
2346#
2347# 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2348# from 1992-01-13 No. 28
2349# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
2350# (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
2351# introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
2352# 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
2353# according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks
2354# on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at
2355# 2:00, specified DST rules.  It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was
2356# located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the
2357# border between them to be located east of Qostanay and Aktyubinsk
2358# oblasts (notably including Turgai and Qyzylorda oblasts into the fifth
2359# time belt).
2360#
2361# This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for
2362# Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyraū and Qostanay oblasts; from
2363# +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk)....
2364#
2365# 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2366# from 1992-03-27 No. 284
2367# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_
2368# cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Qyzylorda oblasts
2369# since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth
2370# and the fifth time belts respectively.
2371#
2372# 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2373# from 1994-09-23 No. 384
2374# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_
2375# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangghystaū
2376# oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on
2377# the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a
2378# result)....
2379#
2380# 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2381# from 1996-05-08 No. 575
2382# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_
2383# amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead
2384# of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act.
2385#
2386# 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2387# from 1999-03-26 No. 305
2388# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_
2389# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyraū oblast since the
2390# last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth
2391# time belt.
2392#
2393# This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05....
2394#
2395# 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2396# from 2000-11-23 No. 1749
2397# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000
2398# replaces the previous five documents.
2399#
2400# The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the
2401# fourth and the fifth time belts.  They account for changes in spelling
2402# and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997
2403# probably changed time in territories incorporated into Qostanay oblast
2404# (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Qyzylorda oblast
2405# from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the
2406# fourth time belt (no change in practice).
2407#
2408# 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2409# from 2003-12-29 No. 1342
2410# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_
2411# modified the 2000-11-23 act.  No relevant changes, apparently.
2412#
2413# 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2414# from 2004-07-20 No. 775
2415# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004
2416# modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Qostanay and Qyzylorda oblasts into
2417# the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not
2418# using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time
2419# zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07).  The changes were to be implemented
2420# during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically
2421# amended before implementation happened.
2422#
2423# 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2424# from 2004-09-15 No. 1059
2425# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_
2426# modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time"
2427# (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the
2428# 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyraū, West Kazakhstan,
2429# Qostanay, Qyzylorda and Mangghystaū oblasts by not moving clocks
2430# during the 2004 transition to "winter" time.
2431#
2432# This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyraū oblast (no
2433# zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to
2434# +06/+07 for Qostanay oblast (Qostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently)
2435# and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00....
2436#
2437# 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2438# from 2005-03-15 No. 231
2439# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_
2440# removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the
2441# (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15
2442# acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication.
2443# The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer
2444# time.
2445#
2446# Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation
2447# No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
2448# Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
2449# act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
2450
2451# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
2452# Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
2453# oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
2454# (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
2455# according to wikipedia.)
2456#
2457# [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
2458# suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
2459# 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2460# how that could happen....
2461#
2462# [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2463# (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2464# and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2465# the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2466
2467# From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
2468# Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
2469# UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
2470# located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
2471
2472# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2473#
2474# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2475# This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2476# KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2477Zone	Asia/Almaty	5:07:48 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2478			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
2479			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2480			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2481			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2482			6:00	-	+06
2483# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
2484Zone	Asia/Qyzylorda	4:21:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
2485			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
2486			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
2487			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
2488			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2489			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2490			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2491			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2492			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2493			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2494			6:00	-	+06	2018 Dec 21  0:00
2495			5:00	-	+05
2496#
2497# Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
2498# The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2499# reorganization.
2500Zone	Asia/Qostanay	4:14:28 -	LMT	1924 May  2
2501			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
2502			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
2503			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
2504			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2505			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2506			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2507			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2508			6:00	-	+06
2509
2510# Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2511Zone	Asia/Aqtobe	3:48:40	-	LMT	1924 May  2
2512			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
2513			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
2514			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
2515			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2516			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2517			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2518			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2519			5:00	-	+05
2520# Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2521# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2522# so include timestamps before 1963.
2523Zone	Asia/Aqtau	3:21:04	-	LMT	1924 May  2
2524			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
2525			5:00	-	+05	1981 Oct  1
2526			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2527			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2528			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2529			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1994 Sep 25  2:00s
2530			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2531			5:00	-	+05
2532# Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from
2533# +04/+05 to +05/+06 in spring 1999, not fall 1994.
2534Zone	Asia/Atyrau	3:27:44	-	LMT	1924 May  2
2535			3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2536			5:00	-	+05	1981 Oct  1
2537			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2538			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2539			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2540			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1999 Mar 28  2:00s
2541			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2542			5:00	-	+05
2543# West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP)
2544# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2545# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2546Zone	Asia/Oral	3:25:24	-	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
2547			3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
2548			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
2549			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
2550			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
2551			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2552			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2553			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2554			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2555			5:00	-	+05
2556
2557# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
2558# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2559
2560# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
2561# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
2562# http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
2563# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
2564# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
2565# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
2566# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
2567# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
2568
2569# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2570Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Apr	Sun>=7	0:00s	1:00	-
2571Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
2572Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:30	1:00	-
2573Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2004	-	Oct	lastSun	2:30	0	-
2574# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2575Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
2576			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
2577			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2578			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Aug 31  2:00
2579			5:00	Kyrgyz	+05/+06	2005 Aug 12
2580			6:00	-	+06
2581
2582###############################################################################
2583
2584# Korea (North and South)
2585
2586# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2587# http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2588# Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2589# during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2590# between 1987 and 1988 ...
2591
2592# From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2593# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2594# According to the Korean Wikipedia
2595# https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2596# [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2597# DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2598# newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2599# For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2600# started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2601# 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2602
2603# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
2604# 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
2605# date in South Korea should be
2606# 1955-09-08 without specifying time
2607# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
2608# 1956-09-29 without specifying time
2609# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
2610# 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
2611# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
2612# 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
2613# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
2614# 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
2615# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
2616# 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
2617# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
2618# ...
2619# 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
2620# when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
2621# aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
2622# follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
2623
2624
2625# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2626Rule	ROK	1948	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
2627Rule	ROK	1948	only	-	Sep	12	24:00	0	S
2628Rule	ROK	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	D
2629Rule	ROK	1949	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=7	24:00	0	S
2630Rule	ROK	1950	only	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
2631Rule	ROK	1951	only	-	May	 6	 0:00	1:00	D
2632Rule	ROK	1955	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	1:00	D
2633Rule	ROK	1955	only	-	Sep	 8	24:00	0	S
2634Rule	ROK	1956	only	-	May	20	 0:00	1:00	D
2635Rule	ROK	1956	only	-	Sep	29	24:00	0	S
2636Rule	ROK	1957	1960	-	May	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	D
2637Rule	ROK	1957	1960	-	Sep	Sat>=17	24:00	0	S
2638Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun>=8	 2:00	1:00	D
2639Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun>=8	 3:00	0	S
2640
2641# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2642# The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2643#
2644# 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2645# 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2646#       (Announcement No. 338)
2647# 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2648# 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2649#
2650# (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2651# edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2652#
2653# I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2654# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2655# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2656#
2657# For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we
2658# have no information otherwise.
2659
2660# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07):
2661# According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to
2662# the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example:
2663# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049
2664#
2665# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15):
2666# Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See:
2667# Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time'
2668# http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html
2669# There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
2670# Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
2671
2672# From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29):
2673# North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang
2674# Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).
2675#
2676# From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):
2677# Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.
2678# https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf
2679# ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree
2680# No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's
2681# Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.
2682# From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):
2683# It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column.
2684#
2685# From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
2686# The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
2687# https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
2688
2689# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2690Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1908 Apr  1
2691			8:30	-	KST	1912 Jan  1
2692			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep  8
2693			9:00	ROK	K%sT	1954 Mar 21
2694			8:30	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
2695			9:00	ROK	K%sT
2696Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1908 Apr  1
2697			8:30	-	KST	1912 Jan  1
2698			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 24
2699			9:00	-	KST	2015 Aug 15 00:00
2700			8:30	-	KST	2018 May  4 23:30
2701			9:00	-	KST
2702
2703###############################################################################
2704
2705# Kuwait
2706# See Asia/Riyadh.
2707
2708# Laos
2709# See Asia/Bangkok.
2710
2711
2712# Lebanon
2713# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2714Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
2715Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
2716Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
2717Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
2718Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
2719Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	-
2720Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
2721Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
2722Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
2723Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2724Rule	Lebanon	1972	only	-	Jun	22	0:00	1:00	S
2725Rule	Lebanon	1972	1977	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2726Rule	Lebanon	1973	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
2727Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
2728Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
2729Rule	Lebanon	1984	1987	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
2730Rule	Lebanon	1984	1991	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
2731Rule	Lebanon	1988	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
2732Rule	Lebanon	1989	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
2733Rule	Lebanon	1990	1992	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
2734Rule	Lebanon	1992	only	-	Oct	4	0:00	0	-
2735Rule	Lebanon	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
2736Rule	Lebanon	1993	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
2737Rule	Lebanon	1999	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
2738# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2739Zone	Asia/Beirut	2:22:00 -	LMT	1880
2740			2:00	Lebanon	EE%sT
2741
2742# Malaysia
2743# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2744Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Sep	14	0:00	0:20	-
2745Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Dec	14	0:00	0	-
2746#
2747# peninsular Malaysia
2748# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2749# https://web.archive.org/web/20190822231045/http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/~mathelmr/teaching/timezone.html
2750# This agrees with Singapore since 1905-06-01.
2751# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2752Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:46 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
2753			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2754			7:00	-	+07	1933 Jan  1
2755			7:00	0:20	+0720	1936 Jan  1
2756			7:20	-	+0720	1941 Sep  1
2757			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Feb 16
2758			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
2759			7:30	-	+0730	1982 Jan  1
2760			8:00	-	+08
2761# Sabah & Sarawak
2762# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
2763# The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
2764# and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
2765# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2766Zone Asia/Kuching	7:21:20	-	LMT	1926 Mar
2767			7:30	-	+0730	1933
2768			8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820	1942 Feb 16
2769			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
2770			8:00	-	+08
2771
2772# Maldives
2773# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2774Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880 # Malé
2775			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960 # Malé Mean Time
2776			5:00	-	+05
2777
2778# Mongolia
2779
2780# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
2781# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
2782# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
2783
2784# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
2785# General Information Mongolia
2786# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
2787# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
2788# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
2789# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
2790# eight hours."
2791
2792# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
2793# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
2794# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
2795# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
2796# of implementation may have been different....
2797# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
2798# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
2799# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
2800
2801# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
2802# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
2803# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
2804# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
2805# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
2806# is good enough for our purposes.
2807
2808# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
2809# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
2810# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
2811# there are three time zones.
2812#
2813# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
2814# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
2815#	Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
2816# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
2817#
2818# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
2819
2820# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
2821# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
2822# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
2823# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
2824#
2825# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
2826# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
2827# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
2828
2829# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
2830# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
2831# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
2832# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
2833# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
2834# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UT +07, +08) with no DST.
2835# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
2836# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
2837# He also found
2838# http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
2839# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
2840# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
2841# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
2842# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
2843# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
2844# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
2845# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
2846
2847# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
2848# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
2849# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
2850# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
2851
2852# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
2853# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
2854# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
2855# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
2856# database on this, e.g.:
2857#
2858# https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
2859# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
2860#
2861# both say GMT+08:00.
2862
2863# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
2864# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
2865# schedule here:
2866# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
2867# (click the English flag for English)
2868#
2869# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
2870# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
2871# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
2872# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
2873# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
2874# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
2875
2876# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2877# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
2878# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
2879# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
2880# this is almost surely wrong.
2881
2882# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10):
2883# It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use
2884# daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of
2885# March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of
2886# September daylight saving time ends.  Source:
2887# http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969
2888
2889# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
2890Rule	Mongol	1983	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	-
2891Rule	Mongol	1983	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
2892# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
2893# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
2894# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
2895#
2896# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
2897# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
2898# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
2899# the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
2900# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
2901# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
2902
2903# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09):
2904# Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight
2905# saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192
2906
2907Rule	Mongol	1985	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	-
2908Rule	Mongol	1984	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
2909# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
2910Rule	Mongol	2001	only	-	Apr	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
2911Rule	Mongol	2001	2006	-	Sep	lastSat	2:00	0	-
2912Rule	Mongol	2002	2006	-	Mar	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
2913Rule	Mongol	2015	2016	-	Mar	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
2914Rule	Mongol	2015	2016	-	Sep	lastSat	0:00	0	-
2915
2916# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2917# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
2918Zone	Asia/Hovd	6:06:36 -	LMT	1905 Aug
2919			6:00	-	+06	1978
2920			7:00	Mongol	+07/+08
2921# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
2922Zone	Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
2923			7:00	-	+07	1978
2924			8:00	Mongol	+08/+09
2925# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2926# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2927Zone	Asia/Choibalsan	7:38:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
2928			7:00	-	+07	1978
2929			8:00	-	+08	1983 Apr
2930			9:00	Mongol	+09/+10	2008 Mar 31
2931			8:00	Mongol	+08/+09
2932
2933# Nepal
2934# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
2935Zone	Asia/Kathmandu	5:41:16 -	LMT	1920
2936			5:30	-	+0530	1986
2937			5:45	-	+0545
2938
2939# Oman
2940# See Asia/Dubai.
2941
2942# Pakistan
2943
2944# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2945# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2946# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2947# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2948# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2949# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2950
2951# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2952# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2953# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2954# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
2955# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
2956# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
2957# 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
2958# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
2959# it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
2960# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
2961# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
2962
2963# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
2964# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
2965# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
2966
2967# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
2968# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
2969# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
2970#
2971# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
2972# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
2973# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
2974# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
2975#
2976# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
2977# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
2978
2979# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
2980#
2981# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
2982# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
2983#
2984# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
2985# help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
2986# 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
2987#
2988# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
2989# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
2990
2991# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2992# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
2993
2994# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2995# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
2996# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
2997# instead of August 31.
2998#
2999# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
3000# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
3001
3002# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
3003# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
3004# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
3005# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
3006# official working."
3007# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
3008#
3009# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
3010# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
3011#
3012# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
3013# April 08, 2009
3014# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
3015# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
3016# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
3017#
3018# ....
3019# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
3020# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
3021# conserve energy"
3022
3023# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
3024# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
3025# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
3026# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
3027# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
3028# this regard."
3029# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
3030
3031# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
3032# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
3033# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
3034# October 1, 2009.
3035#
3036# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
3037# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
3038# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
3039#
3040# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
3041# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
3042# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
3043# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
3044# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
3045# Monday."
3046#
3047# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
3048# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
3049# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
3050# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
3051#
3052# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
3053# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
3054# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
3055
3056# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
3057# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
3058# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
3059
3060# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
3061# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
3062# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
3063# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
3064# >
3065# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
3066# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
3067# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
3068# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
3069# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
3070#
3071# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
3072# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
3073#
3074# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
3075# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
3076
3077# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3078Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Apr	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	S
3079Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
3080Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
3081Rule Pakistan	2008	2009	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
3082Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
3083
3084# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3085Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
3086			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Sep
3087			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 15
3088			5:30	-	+0530	1951 Sep 30
3089			5:00	-	+05	1971 Mar 26
3090			5:00 Pakistan	PK%sT	# Pakistan Time
3091
3092# Palestine
3093
3094# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
3095#
3096# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
3097# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
3098# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
3099#
3100# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
3101# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
3102# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
3103# though.
3104#
3105# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
3106# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
3107# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
3108# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
3109# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
3110# East Jerusalem.
3111#
3112# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
3113# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
3114# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
3115# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
3116# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
3117#
3118# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
3119# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
3120# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
3121# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
3122# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
3123# Jordanian one).
3124#
3125# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
3126#
3127# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
3128# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
3129# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
3130# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
3131# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
3132#
3133# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
3134# have one).
3135
3136# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
3137# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
3138# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
3139# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
3140# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
3141# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
3142# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
3143# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
3144# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
3145# to Palestine's rules.
3146
3147# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
3148# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
3149#
3150# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
3151# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
3152# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
3153# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
3154
3155# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
3156# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
3157# http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
3158# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
3159# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
3160# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
3161# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
3162# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
3163
3164# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
3165# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
3166
3167# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
3168# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
3169# the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
3170# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
3171# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
3172
3173# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3174# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
3175# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
3176# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
3177# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
3178# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
3179# the West Bank.
3180
3181# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
3182# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
3183# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
3184# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
3185# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
3186# > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
3187# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
3188# because of the Ramadan.
3189
3190# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
3191# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
3192# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
3193
3194# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
3195# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
3196# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
3197# surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
3198# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
3199# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
3200
3201# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
3202# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
3203#
3204# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
3205# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
3206#
3207# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
3208# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
3209# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
3210
3211# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
3212# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
3213# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
3214# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
3215#
3216# (in Arabic)
3217# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
3218#
3219# (English translation)
3220# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
3221
3222# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
3223# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
3224# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
3225#
3226# One news source:
3227# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
3228# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
3229# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
3230# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
3231# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
3232# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
3233#
3234# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
3235# end date, we will keep this page updated:
3236# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
3237
3238# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
3239# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
3240#
3241# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
3242# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
3243#
3244# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
3245# (from Palestinian National Authority):
3246# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
3247# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
3248
3249# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
3250# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
3251# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
3252# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
3253#
3254# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
3255# (in Arabic)
3256# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
3257
3258# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
3259# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
3260# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
3261# noon though:
3262#
3263# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
3264# (Ma'an News Agency)
3265# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
3266# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
3267
3268# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
3269# According to several sources, including
3270# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
3271# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
3272# Gaza and the West Bank.
3273# Some more background info:
3274# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
3275
3276# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
3277# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
3278# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
3279# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
3280# Ramadan.
3281#
3282# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
3283# Additional info:
3284# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
3285
3286# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
3287# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
3288# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
3289# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
3290# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
3291# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
3292# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
3293# ...
3294# https://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
3295# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
3296# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
3297
3298# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
3299# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
3300# 00:00).
3301# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
3302#
3303# Many sources, including:
3304# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
3305
3306# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3307# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
3308# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
3309# Some of many sources in Arabic:
3310# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
3311#
3312# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
3313#
3314# Our brief summary:
3315# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
3316
3317# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
3318# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
3319# time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
3320# [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
3321# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
3322# http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
3323
3324# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
3325# The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
3326# (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
3327# This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
3328# at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
3329# http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
3330# official source...:
3331# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
3332
3333# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03):
3334# Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257
3335# and https://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will
3336# start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected.
3337#
3338# From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
3339# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014
3340# says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.
3341
3342# From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09):
3343# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728
3344# [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight
3345# saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning,
3346# 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead."
3347
3348# From Sharef Mustafa (2016-10-19):
3349# [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on
3350# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf
3351# states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00.
3352
3353# From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16):
3354# Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 ...
3355# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817
3356
3357# From Even Scharning (2019-03-23):
3358# http://pnn.ps/news/401130
3359# http://palweather.ps/ar/node/50136.html
3360#
3361# From Sharif Mustafa (2019-03-26):
3362# The Palestinian cabinet announced today that the switch to DST will
3363# be on Fri Mar 29th 2019 by advancing the clock by 60 minutes.
3364# http://palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e54e9ea1-50ee-4137-84df-0d6c78da259b
3365#
3366# From Even Scharning (2019-04-10):
3367# Our source in Palestine said it happened Friday 29 at 00:00 local time....
3368
3369# From Sharef Mustafa (2019-10-18):
3370# Palestine summer time will end on midnight Oct 26th 2019 ...
3371#
3372# From Steffen Thorsen (2020-10-20):
3373# Some sources such as these say, and display on clocks, that DST ended at
3374# midnight last year...
3375# https://www.amad.ps/ar/post/320006
3376#
3377# From Tim Parenti (2020-10-20):
3378# The report of the Palestinian Cabinet meeting of 2019-10-14 confirms
3379# a decision on (translated): "The start of the winter time in Palestine, by
3380# delaying the clock by sixty minutes, starting from midnight on Friday /
3381# Saturday corresponding to 26/10/2019."
3382# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/portal/meeting/details/43948
3383
3384# From Sharef Mustafa (2020-10-20):
3385# As per the palestinian cabinet announcement yesterday , the day light saving
3386# shall [end] on Oct 24th 2020 at 01:00AM by delaying the clock by 60 minutes.
3387# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/portal/Meeting/Details/51584
3388
3389# From Pierre Cashon (2020-10-20):
3390# The summer time this year started on March 28 at 00:00.
3391# https://wafa.ps/ar_page.aspx?id=GveQNZa872839351758aGveQNZ
3392# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/portal/meeting/details/50284
3393# The winter time in 2015 started on October 23 at 01:00.
3394# https://wafa.ps/ar_page.aspx?id=CgpCdYa670694628582aCgpCdY
3395# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/portal/meeting/details/27583
3396#
3397# From Paul Eggert (2019-04-10):
3398# For now, guess spring-ahead transitions are at 00:00 on the Saturday
3399# preceding March's last Sunday (i.e., Sat>=24).
3400
3401# From P Chan (2021-10-18):
3402# http://wafa.ps/Pages/Details/34701
3403# Palestine winter time will start from midnight 2021-10-29 (Thursday-Friday).
3404#
3405# From Heba Hemad, Palestine Ministry of Telecom & IT (2021-10-20):
3406# ... winter time will begin in Palestine from Friday 10-29, 01:00 AM
3407# by 60 minutes backwards.
3408#
3409# From Paul Eggert (2021-10-20):
3410# Guess future fall transitions on October's last Friday at 01:00.
3411
3412# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3413Rule EgyptAsia	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
3414Rule EgyptAsia	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3415Rule EgyptAsia	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3416Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1967	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
3417Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
3418Rule EgyptAsia	1966	only	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
3419
3420Rule Palestine	1999	2005	-	Apr	Fri>=15	0:00	1:00	S
3421Rule Palestine	1999	2003	-	Oct	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
3422Rule Palestine	2004	only	-	Oct	 1	1:00	0	-
3423Rule Palestine	2005	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
3424Rule Palestine	2006	2007	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3425Rule Palestine	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
3426Rule Palestine	2007	only	-	Sep	13	2:00	0	-
3427Rule Palestine	2008	2009	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
3428Rule Palestine	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
3429Rule Palestine	2009	only	-	Sep	 4	1:00	0	-
3430Rule Palestine	2010	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
3431Rule Palestine	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
3432Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Apr	 1	0:01	1:00	S
3433Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Aug	 1	0:00	0	-
3434Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Aug	30	0:00	1:00	S
3435Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
3436Rule Palestine	2012	2014	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
3437Rule Palestine	2012	only	-	Sep	21	1:00	0	-
3438Rule Palestine	2013	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
3439Rule Palestine	2014	only	-	Oct	24	0:00	0	-
3440Rule Palestine	2015	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
3441Rule Palestine	2015	only	-	Oct	23	1:00	0	-
3442Rule Palestine	2016	2018	-	Mar	Sat>=24	1:00	1:00	S
3443Rule Palestine	2016	2018	-	Oct	Sat>=24	1:00	0	-
3444Rule Palestine	2019	only	-	Mar	29	0:00	1:00	S
3445Rule Palestine	2019	only	-	Oct	Sat>=24	0:00	0	-
3446Rule Palestine	2020	max	-	Mar	Sat>=24	0:00	1:00	S
3447Rule Palestine	2020	only	-	Oct	24	1:00	0	-
3448Rule Palestine	2021	max	-	Oct	lastFri	1:00	0	-
3449
3450# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3451Zone	Asia/Gaza	2:17:52	-	LMT	1900 Oct
3452			2:00	Zion	EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3453			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
3454			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
3455			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
3456			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2008 Aug 29  0:00
3457			2:00	-	EET	2008 Sep
3458			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2010
3459			2:00	-	EET	2010 Mar 27  0:01
3460			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2011 Aug  1
3461			2:00	-	EET	2012
3462			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
3463
3464Zone	Asia/Hebron	2:20:23	-	LMT	1900 Oct
3465			2:00	Zion	EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3466			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
3467			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
3468			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
3469			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
3470
3471# Paracel Is
3472# no information
3473
3474# Philippines
3475
3476# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
3477# The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
3478# It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
3479# 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
3480# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
3481# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
3482# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
3483# History of the International Date Line
3484# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
3485# The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
3486
3487# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
3488# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
3489# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
3490# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
3491# but no details]
3492
3493# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
3494# The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
3495# March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
3496# during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
3497# Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
3498# Philippine Star 2014-08-05
3499# http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
3500
3501# From Paul Goyette (2018-06-15):
3502# In the Philippines, there is a national law, Republic Act No. 10535
3503# which declares the official time here as "Philippine Standard Time".
3504# The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although
3505# the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish
3506# it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)."
3507# [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/
3508# [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535
3509#
3510# From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
3511# I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is
3512# more popular among reliable English-language news sources.  This is
3513# not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and
3514# influence of the sources.  There is no current abbreviation for DST,
3515# so use "PDT", the usual American style.
3516
3517# From P Chan (2021-05-10):
3518# Here's a fairly comprehensive article in Japanese:
3519# https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/Philippine%20Time
3520# From Paul Eggert (2021-05-10):
3521# The info in the Japanese table has not been absorbed (yet) below.
3522
3523# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3524Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	D
3525Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	S
3526Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Apr	12	0:00	1:00	D
3527Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	0	S
3528Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
3529Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
3530# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3531Zone	Asia/Manila	-15:56:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
3532			8:04:00 -	LMT	1899 May 11
3533			8:00	Phil	P%sT	1942 May
3534			9:00	-	JST	1944 Nov
3535			8:00	Phil	P%sT
3536
3537# Qatar
3538# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3539Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
3540			4:00	-	+04	1972 Jun
3541			3:00	-	+03
3542Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
3543
3544# Saudi Arabia
3545#
3546# From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):
3547# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
3548# standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it
3549# has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
3550# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
3551# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3552# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3553# o'clock for "Arab" time).
3554#
3555# Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3556# Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3557# practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3558# which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3559# the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3560# instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3561# used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3562# Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3563# (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3564# "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3565# station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3566# assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3567# shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3568# going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3569# Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3570# http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3571# Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
3572# Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
3573#
3574# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3575# we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3576# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3577# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3578# Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3579# earlier date.
3580#
3581# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3582# time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3583# the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3584# as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3585#
3586# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3587Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1947 Mar 14
3588			3:00	-	+03
3589Link Asia/Riyadh Antarctica/Syowa
3590Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden	# Yemen
3591Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3592
3593# Singapore
3594# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
3595# https://web.archive.org/web/20190822231045/http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/~mathelmr/teaching/timezone.html
3596# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3597Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:25 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
3598			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
3599			7:00	-	+07	1933 Jan  1
3600			7:00	0:20	+0720	1936 Jan  1
3601			7:20	-	+0720	1941 Sep  1
3602			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Feb 16
3603			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
3604			7:30	-	+0730	1982 Jan  1
3605			8:00	-	+08
3606
3607# Spratly Is
3608# no information
3609
3610# Sri Lanka
3611
3612# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
3613# Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
3614# mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
3615# from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
3616# Shanks and Pottenger.
3617
3618# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
3619# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
3620# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
3621# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
3622# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
3623# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
3624#
3625# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
3626# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
3627# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
3628# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
3629# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
3630
3631# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
3632# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
3633# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
3634# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
3635
3636# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
3637# http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
3638# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
3639# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
3640# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
3641# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
3642# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
3643# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
3644
3645# From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19):
3646# According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units,
3647# Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka
3648# standard time is SLST.
3649#
3650# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18):
3651# "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time
3652# zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of
3653# it in the International Business Times of India in February and
3654# March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing
3655# since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
3656# other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
3657# even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
3658# switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
3659
3660# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3661Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
3662			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
3663			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Jan  5
3664			5:30	0:30	+06	1942 Sep
3665			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 16  2:00
3666			5:30	-	+0530	1996 May 25  0:00
3667			6:30	-	+0630	1996 Oct 26  0:30
3668			6:00	-	+06	2006 Apr 15  0:30
3669			5:30	-	+0530
3670
3671# Syria
3672# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	-	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
3673Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
3674Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
3675Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	S
3676Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
3677Rule	Syria	1963	1965	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
3678Rule	Syria	1963	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
3679Rule	Syria	1964	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
3680Rule	Syria	1965	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
3681Rule	Syria	1966	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	S
3682Rule	Syria	1966	1976	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
3683Rule	Syria	1967	1978	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
3684Rule	Syria	1977	1978	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	-
3685Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Apr	9	2:00	1:00	S
3686Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
3687Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Feb	16	2:00	1:00	S
3688Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Oct	9	2:00	0	-
3689Rule	Syria	1987	only	-	Mar	1	2:00	1:00	S
3690Rule	Syria	1987	1988	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	-
3691Rule	Syria	1988	only	-	Mar	15	2:00	1:00	S
3692Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
3693Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
3694Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Apr	1	2:00	1:00	S
3695Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
3696Rule	Syria	1991	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3697Rule	Syria	1991	1992	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3698Rule	Syria	1992	only	-	Apr	 8	0:00	1:00	S
3699Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
3700Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
3701# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
3702# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
3703# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
3704# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
3705# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
3706# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
3707Rule	Syria	1994	1996	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3708Rule	Syria	1994	2005	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
3709Rule	Syria	1997	1998	-	Mar	lastMon	0:00	1:00	S
3710Rule	Syria	1999	2006	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
3711# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
3712# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
3713# this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
3714Rule	Syria	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
3715# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
3716# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
3717# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
3718Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
3719# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
3720# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
3721# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
3722# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
3723# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
3724# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
3725# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
3726#
3727# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
3728# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
3729#
3730# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
3731# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
3732#
3733# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
3734# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
3735#
3736# which using Google's translate tools says:
3737# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
3738# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
3739# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
3740Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Nov	 Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
3741
3742# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
3743# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
3744# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
3745# Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
3746# Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
3747# Variation
3748# Syrian Arab
3749# Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
3750#                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
3751#                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
3752
3753# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
3754# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
3755# Agency (SANA)...
3756# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
3757# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
3758# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
3759# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
3760# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
3761# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
3762
3763# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
3764# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
3765# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
3766# compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
3767# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
3768
3769# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
3770# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
3771# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
3772#
3773# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
3774# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
3775# clocks back 60 minutes).
3776#
3777# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
3778
3779# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
3780# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
3781# two examples:
3782#
3783# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
3784# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
3785# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
3786# (Arabic, gov-site)
3787#
3788# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
3789#
3790# Our summary
3791# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
3792
3793# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
3794# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
3795# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
3796# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
3797# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
3798
3799# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
3800# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
3801# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
3802# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
3803
3804# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
3805# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
3806# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
3807# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
3808# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
3809
3810# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3811# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
3812# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
3813#
3814# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
3815# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
3816#
3817# Our brief summary:
3818# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
3819
3820# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
3821# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
3822
3823Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
3824Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
3825Rule	Syria	2009	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
3826Rule	Syria	2010	2011	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
3827Rule	Syria	2012	max	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
3828Rule	Syria	2009	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00	0	-
3829
3830# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3831Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920 # Dimashq
3832			2:00	Syria	EE%sT
3833
3834# Tajikistan
3835# From Shanks & Pottenger.
3836# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3837Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3838			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
3839			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3840			5:00	1:00	+05/+06	1991 Sep  9  2:00s
3841			5:00	-	+05
3842
3843# Thailand
3844# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3845Zone	Asia/Bangkok	6:42:04	-	LMT	1880
3846			6:42:04	-	BMT	1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
3847			7:00	-	+07
3848Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh	# Cambodia
3849Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane	# Laos
3850
3851# Turkmenistan
3852# From Shanks & Pottenger.
3853# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3854Zone	Asia/Ashgabat	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
3855			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
3856			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00
3857			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00
3858			5:00	-	+05
3859
3860# United Arab Emirates
3861# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3862Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
3863			4:00	-	+04
3864Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat	# Oman
3865
3866# Uzbekistan
3867# Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
3868# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3869Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:53 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3870			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
3871			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
3872			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
3873			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
3874			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992
3875			5:00	-	+05
3876# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
3877Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:11 -	LMT	1924 May  2
3878			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
3879			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00
3880			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992
3881			5:00	-	+05
3882
3883# Vietnam
3884
3885# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
3886# Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
3887# used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
3888# from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
3889# and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
3890
3891# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
3892# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
3893# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
3894
3895# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
3896# Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
3897# (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
3898# is quoted verbatim in:
3899# http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
3900# is translated by Brian Inglis in:
3901# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
3902# and is the basis for the information below.
3903#
3904# The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
3905# Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104° 17' 17" east of Paris.
3906# It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
3907# the Paris Meridian (2° 20' 14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
3908# and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
3909# which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
3910# is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
3911#
3912# The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
3913# and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
3914# To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
3915# To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
3916# To 09:00 on 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
3917# To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
3918# To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
3919# To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
3920# To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
3921# To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
3922#
3923# Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
3924#
3925# Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
3926# No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
3927#
3928# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
3929# NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
3930#
3931# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
3932# NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
3933
3934# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
3935Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jul  1
3936			7:06:30	-	PLMT	1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
3937			7:00	-	+07	1942 Dec 31 23:00
3938			8:00	-	+08	1945 Mar 14 23:00
3939			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep  2
3940			7:00	-	+07	1947 Apr  1
3941			8:00	-	+08	1955 Jul  1
3942			7:00	-	+07	1959 Dec 31 23:00
3943			8:00	-	+08	1975 Jun 13
3944			7:00	-	+07
3945
3946# From Paul Eggert (2019-02-19):
3947#
3948# The Ho Chi Minh entry suffices for most purposes as it agrees with all of
3949# Vietnam since 1975-06-13.  Presumably clocks often changed in south Vietnam
3950# in the early 1970s as locations changed hands during the war; however the
3951# details are unknown and would likely be too voluminous for this database.
3952#
3953# For timestamps in north Vietnam back to 1970 (the tzdb cutoff),
3954# use Asia/Bangkok; see the VN entries in the file zone1970.tab.
3955# For timestamps before 1970, see Asia/Hanoi in the file 'backzone'.
3956
3957
3958# Yemen
3959# See Asia/Riyadh.
3960