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README.md

1### Generic Build Instructions
2
3#### Setup
4
5To build Google Test and your tests that use it, you need to tell your build
6system where to find its headers and source files. The exact way to do it
7depends on which build system you use, and is usually straightforward.
8
9#### Build
10
11Suppose you put Google Test in directory `${GTEST_DIR}`. To build it, create a
12library build target (or a project as called by Visual Studio and Xcode) to
13compile
14
15    ${GTEST_DIR}/src/gtest-all.cc
16
17with `${GTEST_DIR}/include` in the system header search path and `${GTEST_DIR}`
18in the normal header search path. Assuming a Linux-like system and gcc,
19something like the following will do:
20
21    g++ -isystem ${GTEST_DIR}/include -I${GTEST_DIR} \
22        -pthread -c ${GTEST_DIR}/src/gtest-all.cc
23    ar -rv libgtest.a gtest-all.o
24
25(We need `-pthread` as Google Test uses threads.)
26
27Next, you should compile your test source file with `${GTEST_DIR}/include` in
28the system header search path, and link it with gtest and any other necessary
29libraries:
30
31    g++ -isystem ${GTEST_DIR}/include -pthread path/to/your_test.cc libgtest.a \
32        -o your_test
33
34As an example, the make/ directory contains a Makefile that you can use to build
35Google Test on systems where GNU make is available (e.g. Linux, Mac OS X, and
36Cygwin). It doesn't try to build Google Test's own tests. Instead, it just
37builds the Google Test library and a sample test. You can use it as a starting
38point for your own build script.
39
40If the default settings are correct for your environment, the following commands
41should succeed:
42
43    cd ${GTEST_DIR}/make
44    make
45    ./sample1_unittest
46
47If you see errors, try to tweak the contents of `make/Makefile` to make them go
48away. There are instructions in `make/Makefile` on how to do it.
49
50### Using CMake
51
52Google Test comes with a CMake build script (
53[CMakeLists.txt](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/master/CMakeLists.txt))
54that can be used on a wide range of platforms ("C" stands for cross-platform.).
55If you don't have CMake installed already, you can download it for free from
56<http://www.cmake.org/>.
57
58CMake works by generating native makefiles or build projects that can be used in
59the compiler environment of your choice. You can either build Google Test as a
60standalone project or it can be incorporated into an existing CMake build for
61another project.
62
63#### Standalone CMake Project
64
65When building Google Test as a standalone project, the typical workflow starts
66with:
67
68    mkdir mybuild       # Create a directory to hold the build output.
69    cd mybuild
70    cmake ${GTEST_DIR}  # Generate native build scripts.
71
72If you want to build Google Test's samples, you should replace the last command
73with
74
75    cmake -Dgtest_build_samples=ON ${GTEST_DIR}
76
77If you are on a \*nix system, you should now see a Makefile in the current
78directory. Just type 'make' to build gtest.
79
80If you use Windows and have Visual Studio installed, a `gtest.sln` file and
81several `.vcproj` files will be created. You can then build them using Visual
82Studio.
83
84On Mac OS X with Xcode installed, a `.xcodeproj` file will be generated.
85
86#### Incorporating Into An Existing CMake Project
87
88If you want to use gtest in a project which already uses CMake, then a more
89robust and flexible approach is to build gtest as part of that project directly.
90This is done by making the GoogleTest source code available to the main build
91and adding it using CMake's `add_subdirectory()` command. This has the
92significant advantage that the same compiler and linker settings are used
93between gtest and the rest of your project, so issues associated with using
94incompatible libraries (eg debug/release), etc. are avoided. This is
95particularly useful on Windows. Making GoogleTest's source code available to the
96main build can be done a few different ways:
97
98*   Download the GoogleTest source code manually and place it at a known
99    location. This is the least flexible approach and can make it more difficult
100    to use with continuous integration systems, etc.
101*   Embed the GoogleTest source code as a direct copy in the main project's
102    source tree. This is often the simplest approach, but is also the hardest to
103    keep up to date. Some organizations may not permit this method.
104*   Add GoogleTest as a git submodule or equivalent. This may not always be
105    possible or appropriate. Git submodules, for example, have their own set of
106    advantages and drawbacks.
107*   Use CMake to download GoogleTest as part of the build's configure step. This
108    is just a little more complex, but doesn't have the limitations of the other
109    methods.
110
111The last of the above methods is implemented with a small piece of CMake code in
112a separate file (e.g. `CMakeLists.txt.in`) which is copied to the build area and
113then invoked as a sub-build _during the CMake stage_. That directory is then
114pulled into the main build with `add_subdirectory()`. For example:
115
116New file `CMakeLists.txt.in`:
117
118    cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.2)
119
120    project(googletest-download NONE)
121
122    include(ExternalProject)
123    ExternalProject_Add(googletest
124      GIT_REPOSITORY    https://github.com/google/googletest.git
125      GIT_TAG           master
126      SOURCE_DIR        "${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-src"
127      BINARY_DIR        "${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-build"
128      CONFIGURE_COMMAND ""
129      BUILD_COMMAND     ""
130      INSTALL_COMMAND   ""
131      TEST_COMMAND      ""
132    )
133
134Existing build's `CMakeLists.txt`:
135
136    # Download and unpack googletest at configure time
137    configure_file(CMakeLists.txt.in googletest-download/CMakeLists.txt)
138    execute_process(COMMAND ${CMAKE_COMMAND} -G "${CMAKE_GENERATOR}" .
139      RESULT_VARIABLE result
140      WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-download )
141    if(result)
142      message(FATAL_ERROR "CMake step for googletest failed: ${result}")
143    endif()
144    execute_process(COMMAND ${CMAKE_COMMAND} --build .
145      RESULT_VARIABLE result
146      WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-download )
147    if(result)
148      message(FATAL_ERROR "Build step for googletest failed: ${result}")
149    endif()
150
151    # Prevent overriding the parent project's compiler/linker
152    # settings on Windows
153    set(gtest_force_shared_crt ON CACHE BOOL "" FORCE)
154
155    # Add googletest directly to our build. This defines
156    # the gtest and gtest_main targets.
157    add_subdirectory(${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-src
158                     ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-build
159                     EXCLUDE_FROM_ALL)
160
161    # The gtest/gtest_main targets carry header search path
162    # dependencies automatically when using CMake 2.8.11 or
163    # later. Otherwise we have to add them here ourselves.
164    if (CMAKE_VERSION VERSION_LESS 2.8.11)
165      include_directories("${gtest_SOURCE_DIR}/include")
166    endif()
167
168    # Now simply link against gtest or gtest_main as needed. Eg
169    add_executable(example example.cpp)
170    target_link_libraries(example gtest_main)
171    add_test(NAME example_test COMMAND example)
172
173Note that this approach requires CMake 2.8.2 or later due to its use of the
174`ExternalProject_Add()` command. The above technique is discussed in more detail
175in [this separate article](http://crascit.com/2015/07/25/cmake-gtest/) which
176also contains a link to a fully generalized implementation of the technique.
177
178##### Visual Studio Dynamic vs Static Runtimes
179
180By default, new Visual Studio projects link the C runtimes dynamically but
181Google Test links them statically. This will generate an error that looks
182something like the following: gtest.lib(gtest-all.obj) : error LNK2038: mismatch
183detected for 'RuntimeLibrary': value 'MTd_StaticDebug' doesn't match value
184'MDd_DynamicDebug' in main.obj
185
186Google Test already has a CMake option for this: `gtest_force_shared_crt`
187
188Enabling this option will make gtest link the runtimes dynamically too, and
189match the project in which it is included.
190
191### Legacy Build Scripts
192
193Before settling on CMake, we have been providing hand-maintained build
194projects/scripts for Visual Studio, Xcode, and Autotools. While we continue to
195provide them for convenience, they are not actively maintained any more. We
196highly recommend that you follow the instructions in the above sections to
197integrate Google Test with your existing build system.
198
199If you still need to use the legacy build scripts, here's how:
200
201The msvc\ folder contains two solutions with Visual C++ projects. Open the
202`gtest.sln` or `gtest-md.sln` file using Visual Studio, and you are ready to
203build Google Test the same way you build any Visual Studio project. Files that
204have names ending with -md use DLL versions of Microsoft runtime libraries (the
205/MD or the /MDd compiler option). Files without that suffix use static versions
206of the runtime libraries (the /MT or the /MTd option). Please note that one must
207use the same option to compile both gtest and the test code. If you use Visual
208Studio 2005 or above, we recommend the -md version as /MD is the default for new
209projects in these versions of Visual Studio.
210
211On Mac OS X, open the `gtest.xcodeproj` in the `xcode/` folder using Xcode.
212Build the "gtest" target. The universal binary framework will end up in your
213selected build directory (selected in the Xcode "Preferences..." -> "Building"
214pane and defaults to xcode/build). Alternatively, at the command line, enter:
215
216    xcodebuild
217
218This will build the "Release" configuration of gtest.framework in your default
219build location. See the "xcodebuild" man page for more information about
220building different configurations and building in different locations.
221
222If you wish to use the Google Test Xcode project with Xcode 4.x and above, you
223need to either:
224
225*   update the SDK configuration options in xcode/Config/General.xconfig.
226    Comment options `SDKROOT`, `MACOS_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET`, and `GCC_VERSION`. If
227    you choose this route you lose the ability to target earlier versions of
228    MacOS X.
229*   Install an SDK for an earlier version. This doesn't appear to be supported
230    by Apple, but has been reported to work
231    (http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5378518).
232
233### Tweaking Google Test
234
235Google Test can be used in diverse environments. The default configuration may
236not work (or may not work well) out of the box in some environments. However,
237you can easily tweak Google Test by defining control macros on the compiler
238command line. Generally, these macros are named like `GTEST_XYZ` and you define
239them to either 1 or 0 to enable or disable a certain feature.
240
241We list the most frequently used macros below. For a complete list, see file
242[include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/master/include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h).
243
244### Choosing a TR1 Tuple Library
245
246Some Google Test features require the C++ Technical Report 1 (TR1) tuple
247library, which is not yet available with all compilers. The good news is that
248Google Test implements a subset of TR1 tuple that's enough for its own need, and
249will automatically use this when the compiler doesn't provide TR1 tuple.
250
251Usually you don't need to care about which tuple library Google Test uses.
252However, if your project already uses TR1 tuple, you need to tell Google Test to
253use the same TR1 tuple library the rest of your project uses, or the two tuple
254implementations will clash. To do that, add
255
256    -DGTEST_USE_OWN_TR1_TUPLE=0
257
258to the compiler flags while compiling Google Test and your tests. If you want to
259force Google Test to use its own tuple library, just add
260
261    -DGTEST_USE_OWN_TR1_TUPLE=1
262
263to the compiler flags instead.
264
265If you don't want Google Test to use tuple at all, add
266
267    -DGTEST_HAS_TR1_TUPLE=0
268
269and all features using tuple will be disabled.
270
271### Multi-threaded Tests
272
273Google Test is thread-safe where the pthread library is available. After
274`#include "gtest/gtest.h"`, you can check the `GTEST_IS_THREADSAFE` macro to see
275whether this is the case (yes if the macro is `#defined` to 1, no if it's
276undefined.).
277
278If Google Test doesn't correctly detect whether pthread is available in your
279environment, you can force it with
280
281    -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=1
282
283or
284
285    -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=0
286
287When Google Test uses pthread, you may need to add flags to your compiler and/or
288linker to select the pthread library, or you'll get link errors. If you use the
289CMake script or the deprecated Autotools script, this is taken care of for you.
290If you use your own build script, you'll need to read your compiler and linker's
291manual to figure out what flags to add.
292
293### As a Shared Library (DLL)
294
295Google Test is compact, so most users can build and link it as a static library
296for the simplicity. You can choose to use Google Test as a shared library (known
297as a DLL on Windows) if you prefer.
298
299To compile *gtest* as a shared library, add
300
301    -DGTEST_CREATE_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
302
303to the compiler flags. You'll also need to tell the linker to produce a shared
304library instead - consult your linker's manual for how to do it.
305
306To compile your *tests* that use the gtest shared library, add
307
308    -DGTEST_LINKED_AS_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
309
310to the compiler flags.
311
312Note: while the above steps aren't technically necessary today when using some
313compilers (e.g. GCC), they may become necessary in the future, if we decide to
314improve the speed of loading the library (see
315<http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility> for details). Therefore you are recommended
316to always add the above flags when using Google Test as a shared library.
317Otherwise a future release of Google Test may break your build script.
318
319### Avoiding Macro Name Clashes
320
321In C++, macros don't obey namespaces. Therefore two libraries that both define a
322macro of the same name will clash if you `#include` both definitions. In case a
323Google Test macro clashes with another library, you can force Google Test to
324rename its macro to avoid the conflict.
325
326Specifically, if both Google Test and some other code define macro FOO, you can
327add
328
329    -DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_FOO=1
330
331to the compiler flags to tell Google Test to change the macro's name from `FOO`
332to `GTEST_FOO`. Currently `FOO` can be `FAIL`, `SUCCEED`, or `TEST`. For
333example, with `-DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_TEST=1`, you'll need to write
334
335    GTEST_TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
336
337instead of
338
339    TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
340
341in order to define a test.
342